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05 Enzymes and Metabolism

05 Enzymes and Metabolism - 2 Decomposes molecules into...

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Enzymes and Metabolism I. Definitions A. Metabolism – all of the chemical reactions that happen in the cells of the body B. Enzymes help the body break down food and free energy stored in chemical bonds C. Substrate – molecule (or molecules) being metabolized D. The Active Site – The enzyme region where the substrate binds is called its active site II. Enzyme: Specialized Protein Catalyst A. Specialized: an enzyme is “tuned” to facilitate only one type of chemical reaction. B. Protein: an enzyme is a complex protein. C. Catalyst: a catalyst speeds up a reaction without being used up. It can be used over again. III. Activation energy – energy required for reaction to start A. Enzymes decrease activation energy requirements B. Enzymes save energy by lowering the energy of activation IV. Enzymes and Metabolism V. Two types of reactions: A. Anabolic 1. Makes bonds; requires energy 2. Builds larger molecules B. Catabolic 1. Breaks bonds; releases energy
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Unformatted text preview: 2. Decomposes molecules into smaller parts C. Anabolic and catabolic reactions are coupled D. ATP mediates by shuttling energy in its terminal phosphate VI. Things that affect enzyme activity A. Enzymes are proteins. Anything that affects the density of hydrogen bonds affects their shape and their ability to catalyze reactions. B. Temperature C. pH D. Other compounds acting as buffers E. Enzyme concentration also affects the rate of reaction VII. Enzymes are part of Metabolic Pathways: sets of linked enzymatic reactions A. The product of one reaction is the substrate for the next B. If one does not work or is out of balance, the entire pathway can shut down C. Enzymes and feedback in metabolic pathways: 1. If product concentrations are high, the enzyme reaction can stop or reverse 2. Intermediate or end products may act as coenzymes: they attach to earlier enzymes, changing their shape and activity...
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