100908Chem116lecture - Ch 15 - Acids, Bases and pH...

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Arrhenius Acids increase the concentration of H + in aqueous solutions Bases increase the concentration of OH - in aqueous solutions Ch 15 - Acids, Bases and pH Bronsted-Lowry Acids are molecules or ions that give up protons (H + ) Bases are molecules or ions that grab up protons (H + )
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NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - CO 3 2- + H 2 O HCO 3 - + OH - Amphoteric (Amphiprotic) – can act as either an acid or a base Several bases do not have obvious –OH, but they pull a proton from water, leaving OH - H 2 O HCO 3 -
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Strong acids – dissociate (ionize) fully in H 2 O • “oxoacids” H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 HClO 4 • “hydrohalic” acids HBr HCl HI HNO 3 + H 2 O H 3 O + + NO 3 - • Get [H 3 0 + ] directly from molarity of what dissolves • pH = -log [H 3 O + ] • H 2 SO 4 has two protons to dissociate (we’ll treat it and other polyprotic acids later)
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Strong bases – dissociate (ionize) fully in H 2 O • Hydroxides of group 1A & 2A metals LiOH NaOH KOH Ca(OH) 2 Sr(OH) 2 Ba(OH) 2 Be(OH) 2 Mg(OH) 2 not very soluble • Get [OH - ] directly from molarity of what dissolves • pOH = -log [OH - ] • pH + pOH = 14 (will show why soon) NaOH Na + + OH -
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[H 3
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This note was uploaded on 05/15/2011 for the course CHM 116 taught by Professor Matchett during the Fall '11 term at Grand Valley State University.

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100908Chem116lecture - Ch 15 - Acids, Bases and pH...

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