Chapter 2- Research Methods

Chapter 2- Research Methods - Chapter 2- Research Methods...

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Chapter 2- Research Methods How we know what we know (or at least what we think we know) in psychology
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The Scientific Method Six Basic Elements Observing Defining a problem Proposing a hypothesis (an educated guess that can be tested) Operational Definition Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis Publishing results (peer review) Building a theory
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Naturalistic Observation Observing a person or an animal in the environment in which they/it live(s) Problems Observer Effect Observer Bias Anthropomorphic Fallacy
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Lab Observation Setting devised to control possible confounds Problems May be unlike real-life experience May not generalize outside of the lab May curtail motivation to perform
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Research Techniques Standardized Tests Laboratory Experiment Observation Animal Models
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Experimental Psychology Experiments identify cause-and-effect relations. Vary a condition you might think affects behavior. Create two or more groups of subjects, alike in all ways except the condition you are varying. Record whether varying the condition has any effect on behavior.
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Variables Independent Variable Dependent Variable Extraneous Variables
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Groups Experimental Group Control Group Random Assignment
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Logic of Design Two groups alike in all respects Manipulate independent variable for one group only Resulting differences in the two groups must be due to the independent variable
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Example of Design (1) Pre-test Pre-test Post-test Post-test Treatment Control
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Chapter 2- Research Methods - Chapter 2- Research Methods...

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