Unformatted text preview: Consciousness Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli Levels of awareness Unconsciousness Lack of sensory awareness Loss of responsiveness to one's environment Can result from disease, trauma, a blow to the head, or general medical anesthesia Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythms 24 hr biological cycles Regulation of sleep/other body functions Physiological pathway of the biological clock
Light levels retina
suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus pineal gland secretion of melatonin Melatonin- acts as a mild sedative; may be useful for jet lag The Sleep and Waking Cycle Instruments used in research Electroencephalograph: brain electrical activity Electromyograph: muscle activity Electrooculograph: eye movements Other bodily functions also observed Brain Activity EEG monitoring of brain electrical activity Brain-waves Amplitude (height) Frequency (cycles per second) Beta (13-24) Alpha (8-12) Theta (4-7) Delta (<4) Cycling Through the Stages of Sleep Stage 1: brief, transitional (1-7 minutes) alpha -> theta Stage 2: sleep spindles Stages 3 & 4: slow-wave sleep Stage 5: REM, EEG similar to awake, vivid dreaming (initially a few minutes, progressively longer as cycle through the stages) REM Sleep A deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements (REM) Makes up the remaining 20% of sleep time Brain waves during REM are similar to those recorded when a person is awake REM rebound Individuals spend an increased percentage of time in REM sleep if they were deprived of REM sleep on previous nights How Much Sleep Do I Need? Adolescents need about 10 hours of sleep per night From age 20 to 60, individuals need about 7-8 hours of sleep each night People in their 60s need about 6.5 hours per night Sleep Deprivation Complete deprivation 3 or 4 days max Partial deprivation or sleep restriction impaired attention, reaction time, coordination, and decision making accidents: Chernobyl, Exxon Valdez Selective deprivation REM and slow-wave sleep: rebound effect Culture and Sleep Cultural variations Sleeping Arrangements- Co-sleeping Napping Customs Problems in the Night: Insomnia Insomnia chronic problems in getting adequate sleep Causes Anxiety and tension Side effects of emotional problems Stress Drug use Treatment Sedatives The World of Dreams Dreams mental experiences during sleep Content usually familiar Common themes Waking life spillover day residue Western vs. Non-Western interpretations Theories of Dreaming Wish fulfillment Freud Problem-solving Cartwright Activation-synthesis model Hobson and McCarley Hypnosis Hypnosis = a systematic procedure that increases suggestibility Hypnotic susceptibility: individual differences Effects produced through hypnosis: Anesthesia Sensory distortions and hallucinations Disinhibition Posthypnotic suggestions and amnesia Meditation Meditation = practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation (TM) Potential physiological benefits Similar to effective relaxation procedures Drugs 6 categories of psychoactive drugs Narcotics (opiates) pain relieving Sedatives sleep inducing Stimulants increase CNS activity Hallucinogens distort sensory and perceptual experience Cannabis produce mild, relaxed euphoria Alcohol produces relaxed euphoria, decreases in inhibitions Drug Dependence Physical dependence Psychological dependence Risks Overdose Physical damage Indirect behavioral effects The "Reward Pathway" ...
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- Fall '08