Intro F07 - Chapter 1 An Introduction to Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 An Introduction to Introduction to Psychology Outline Approaches to the study of human behavior History of the field Current state of the field Seven organizing themes 6 Approaches Biological Approach Cognitive Approach 6 Approaches (Cont') Behavioral Approach Psychoanalytic Approach 6 Approaches (Cont') Humanistic Approach CrossCultural Approaches How Did Psychology Begin? Wilhelm Wundt "Father of psychology" in Leipzig, Germany Structuralism Established the 1st psychology laboratory The attempt to identify the most basic elements that comprise mental experiences Initial methodology Introspection Exploring conscious mental processes Asks subjects to report their experiences Maintenance rehearsal retains information for longer periods of time practice of intentionally rehearsing information Functionalism Study of the function of behavior Interested in how our minds adapt to changing environments William James developed through ages of evolution because of their adaptive functions Viewed mental activities as having Behaviorism John B. Watson Founder of Behaviorism Behavior = overt or observable responses or activities Radical reorientation of psychology as a science of observable behavior What are your five favorite songs? How could we measure this? Freud: the Unconscious Mind Sigmund Freud (18561939) Founded Psychoanalytic school of thought Emphasis on unconscious processes influencing behavior Unconscious = outside awareness Behavior is influenced by the unconscious Freud's Ideas: Controversy and Influence Unconscious conflict related to sexuality plays a central role in behavior Controversial notions caused debate/resistance (scandal) Significant influence on the field of psychology B.F. Skinner Behaviorism Revisited: B.F. Skinner Environmental factors determine behavior Responses that lead to positive outcomes are repeated Responses that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated The 1950's: Opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory and Behaviorism Develops Led by Abraham Maslow (19081970) and Carl Rogers (19021987) Emphasis on personal growth and fulfillment of potential 1960's: Return of Cognition and Physiology Cognition = mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge Piaget, Chomsky, and Simon Application of scientific methods to studying internal mental events Mind, Body, and Behavior: Biological Psychology James Olds (1956) Electrical stimulation of the brain evokes emotional responses in animals Left and right brain specialization Roger Sperry (1981) Behavior must occur in a physical medium! Contemporary Psychology: Cultural Diversity Ethnocentrism viewing one's own group as superior and as the standard for judging Historically: middle and upper class white males studying middle and upper class white males Evolutionary Psychology Shared structuralfunctional heritage Quantity is represented identically in animals and humans Other topics: mating preferences, jealousy, aggression, sexual behavior Careers in Psychology Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist A psychologist is someone who has completed 4 or 5 years of postgraduate education and has obtained a Ph.D. in psychology Some states permit individuals with master's degrees to call themselves psychologists A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (M.D.) who has spent several years in clinical training, which includes diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors Figure 1.7 Principal professional specialties in contemporary psychology. Most psychologists who deliver professional services to the public specialize in one of the four areas described here. The figures in the pie chart reflect the percentage of applied psychologists belonging to the APA who identify each area as their chief specialty. (Data based on 1997 APA Directory Survey) Figure 1.6 Major research areas in contemporary psychology. Most research psychologists specialize in one of the seven broad areas described here. The figures in the pie chart reflect the percentage of research psychologists belonging to the APA who identify each area as their primary interest. (Data based on 1997 APA Directory Survey) Themes related to psychology as a field of study: Psychology is empirical (Theme 1), theoretically diverse (Theme 2), and it evolves in a sociohistorical context (Theme 3). Themes related to psychology's subject matter: Behavior is determined by multiple causes (Theme 4), shaped by cultural heritage (Theme 5), and influenced jointly by heredity and environment (Theme 6). Finally, people's experience of the world is highly subjective (Theme 7). Studying Psychology: Seven Organizing Themes ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/15/2011 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Wormer during the Fall '08 term at Grand Valley State.

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