HIST130 Notes

HIST130 Notes - Triangle trade-Slaves exchanged with...

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Triangle trade -Slaves exchanged with Africans for European goods, slave labor in New World produced cotton and tobacco, and European consumers buy new world’s goods. Led to the expansion of West Africa and replaced white and Native American labor in the Americas. Also led to racial slavery in the Americas. Manhumutapa Empire- Known for its gold resources. Helped to expand African trade with the Indian Ocean. Thought to hold the legendary King Solomon’s mines. Zimbabwe and Mozambique in 15 th -18 th centuries. Mfecane -Also known as “the crushing.” Period of political disruption and migration during the early 1800’s. Caused by aggressive expansion of the Zulu Empire under Shaka. Shaka was trying to expand empire to find more arable land during a period of drought. Sokoto Caliphate -Islamic community in Nigeria. Established in 1809 after a jihad. Helped Islam to become very closely tied with trade in Africa. It brought Islamic culture to Africa, such as schooling, scholarship, and Arabic. Was a theocracy founded by Usuman dan Fodio. Tukulor Empire- an attempt at creating another Islamic state in 1850. At its peak, it extended from Senegal to Timbuktu. Founded by Al-Hajj Umar and was eventually defeated by the French. Al-Hajj Umar -Islamic scholar and political figure. Began a jihad in West Africa in 1850’s and founded the Tukulor Empire. Popularized Islamic order called the Tijaniyah, which helped him gain so much power. Usman dan Fodio -Successfully led a jihad in West Africa and founded the Sokoto Caliphate in 1809. Criticized many Muslim leaders for their greed. Jihad -War intended to establish a new religious order. Used to establish Islamic states in Africa during the 1800’s. Led to an increased Islamic influence in Africa. legitimate trade vs. illegitimate trade -The shift in European trade ideals in Africa from slaves to goods such as palm oil and rubber. This shift was to further Europe’s goal for greater control. Industrialization was a major factor in legitimate trade’s growth. Brooks argument -There was a relative balance of power in Africa prior to European imperial intervention. Europe helped to build upon existing trade in Africa, as well as incorporate it into the global context. Coastal states were the intermediates to Europeans and the inner states. Colson argument -African states were already complex and evolving before European colonization. Already had trans-Saharan and Atlantic Slave Trades. Muslim dynamic was already changing Africa as well. Had trade with Indian Ocean. Berlin Conference -Europe felt that Africa wasn’t colonized and decided to do so. This began the “Scramble for Africa” and allowed the world powers to take certain areas of Africa as their
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own. All accounted for except for Liberia and Ethiopia. Important to remember that conference did not immediately cause colonialism. Colonialism is a process, not an event. “Scramble for Africa”
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This note was uploaded on 05/16/2011 for the course HIST 130 taught by Professor Lindsay during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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HIST130 Notes - Triangle trade-Slaves exchanged with...

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