Late Decolonization of Southern Africa

Late Decolonization of Southern Africa - Late...

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Late Decolonization of Southern Africa I. Orientation Southern Africa as a theater of the Cold War during the 1970’s and 80’s, particularly following the end of the Vietnam War. African nationalist movements in Angola, Mozambique, Southern Rhodesia, and South Africa were viewed as communists, White regimes in Southern Rhodesia and apartheid in South Africa were viewed as anti- communist and thus had support from the West. Endurance of white supremacy in southern Africa must be attributed to both interal intransigence as well as external support from the West. II. Late Decolonization: The Case of Zimbabwe a. UDI under Ian Smith and the Rhodesian Front in 1965 i. Southern Rhodesia declared itself a republic in 1970, seeking to leave the British Commonwealth b. Civil War (Second Chimurenga) from 1970-1980 i. 1961: Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU) 1. Pro-USSR 2. Joshua Nkomo 3. Received support from Soviet Union ii. 1963: Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) 1. Maoist, pro-China a. China gave support 2. Robert Mugabe 3. Current ruling party is ZANU-PF a. ZANU outcompetes ZAPU during establishment of Zimbabwe as a country in 1980 iii. Guerilla struggle during the 1970’s iv. 1979-1980: Lancaster House agreements
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v. 1980: independence with Robert Mugabe of ZANU elected president III. Late Decolonization: The Case of the Portuguese Colonies a. 1973: Guinea-Bissau gains independence i. Amiclar Cabral-critic, intellectual, similar to Fanon (but DID lead national movement) b. Angola and Mozambique become independent from Portugal in 1975 i. Overthrow of Salazar government in Lisbon in 1974 c. Angola fell into civil war i. Three main movements 1. People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 2.
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