Why Colonize the Continent

Why Colonize the Continent - Why Colonize the Continent?...

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Why Colonize the Continent? Intrusion Prior to 1895 Early examples o 16 th century: prozo (plantation) settlements established by Portuguese in Zambezi River valley o 1652: Dutch established Cape Town Presence of white settlers for two centuries Dutch did not want a full-fledged colony; only wanted a small port for routes to Indonesia with fresh supplies White South African’s considered themselves African (Afrikaners) European exploration o 1852-56, 1858-64: David Livingstone Thought he was sent by God to bring Christian missionary to Africa o 1874-77: Henry Morton Stanley Maps of Congo River and source of Nile o Growth in knowledge enabled colonization 1880’s: a scramble prior to the Scramble o 1830: French invade Algiers o 1850’s: French expansion along Senegal River o 1867, 1886: discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa Turned Africa into central priority o 1882: Great Britain occupies Egypt, Sudan, Somalia (control over Suez Canal and Red Sea) o 1884: Germany declares its intentions for Nambia, Togo, Cameroon Summary: European colonial intrusion already began occurring before 1885 Political and Economic Reasons Industrial Revolution: need for resources and markets
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o Empire as a “free trade” zone Greater European control over price of raw African materials Ex. Cotton made in West Africa, French take cotton and make cloth, sell cloth back to West Africans o Imperialism as “highest stage of capitalism” Constant expansion Rosa Luxemburg, V. I. Lenin Social Darwinism o Europeans as “superior race” Superior to natives Wanted to bring “civilization” to other parts of the world Christianity and the “missionary impulse” o Global dominance of Christian Europe as divinely sanctioned o “humanitarianism”-ending slavery Diplomatic theories o Empire as sign of nation-state prestige Decline of Spanish and Portuguese empires Japan wanted an empire-WWII o Competition and desire for balance of power in Europe o Need for global strategy Importance of global trade Importance of Asia Decline in political control in Western Hemisphere Ascendence of African power o Empowerment through illegitimate trade African states not weak
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Europe feels threatened o Shift to legitimate trade created instability o Shift from economic treaties to political treaties Epidemiological reasons o Malaria zone: prohibited European settlement European’s reluctant to settle because high mortality rate o 1820: quinine developed as a medication From bark of cinchona tree (Andes) Technological reasons o 1829: steam train o 1837: electrical telegraph o 1838: trans-Atlantic steamship Rapid trade o 1861, 1881: Gatling gun and Maxim gun Military Summary Point: By 1885 there were technological innovations that enabled colonization and better
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Why Colonize the Continent - Why Colonize the Continent?...

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