Activism of the 1980s

Activism of the 1980s - Activism of the 1980's and the End...

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Activism of the 1980’s and the End of Apartheid in 1994 Overview: Activism of the 1980’s gradually spread with the aid of the United Democratic Front (1983) and other organizations. The UDF marked the return of non-racialism as a political ideology. The apartheid government declared states of emergency in addition to making minor measures of reform. Internationally, South Africa was isolated through sanctions and the pressure of the Frontline States. Key Question: After over 40 years of apartheid (since 1948), almost 80 years of modern state oppression (since 1910), and over 300 years of white-black conflict (since 1652), how did democracy finally arrive? I. The Question of Options a. Two fronts: domestic and international i. International pressure could be addressed through diplomacy 1. 1988, negotiations to end civil war in Angola 2. 1989, Namibia becomes independent a. SWAPO b. Under control of Southwest German Africa 3. November 1989: Berlin Wall fell a. Symbolic ending to cold war b. African support withdrew and helped cause end of cold war as well ii. Domestic situation much harder 1. Activism on several fronts (COSATU, ANC, UDF) 2. Political violence increasing a. Indiscriminate bombing of state and civilian targets by Umkhonto we Sizwe i. Military branch of ANC ii. Involved on public building bombings iii. ANC considered terrorist organization at the time
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b. “Black on black” violence i. Political competition between ANC and Zulu-based Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) ii. Rivalry between both iii. Apartheid government encouraged this violence by giving weapons to ANC II. Response of the apartheid government during the 1970’s and early 80’s a. Crackdown by police and military in urban areas i. Arrest and death of Steve Biko b. Declared several “homelands” independent: Transkei, Venda, etc. i. Not recognized internationally by UN c. Supported different anti-Marxist groups in Angola and Mozambique to destabilize their neighbors d. 1983: tri-cameral parliament proposed i. Sought to incorporate colored and Indian South Africans into government ii. Continued to racially exclude black South Africans III. Activism in 1980’s a. 1983, United Democratic Front formed in Cape Town i. Founded in response to tri-cameral parliament ii. Embraced non-racialism; moved away from Black Consciousness and exhibited
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This note was uploaded on 05/16/2011 for the course HIST 130 taught by Professor Lindsay during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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Activism of the 1980s - Activism of the 1980's and the End...

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