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PSYC 101 Notes

PSYC 101 Notes - ~44 Multiple Choice Questions 10 Qs fro...

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~44 Multiple Choice Questions 10 Qs fro Chapter 6 (Learning) 10 Qs from Chapter 7 (Memory) 12 Qs from Chapter 9 (Motivation & Emotions) 12 Qs from Chapter 10 (Human Development) What are the differences & similarities between classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and  observational learning? What association is being made? What characterizes the acquisition phase? What is stimulus discrimination vs. stimulus generalization? How does extinction occur? What is “spontaneous recovery?” What evidence do we have that there are biological limitations and/or predispositions to  learning? How does classical conditioning occur?  What factors matter (e.g., timing, saliency of  stimulus)? What is higher-order conditioning? What are the different consequences which can affect a behavior?   What are “schedules of reinforcement” and how do they influence behavior? What evidence do we have that cognition is involved with learning? What is “taste aversion?”  What type of learning is this?   What are the different steps involved with memory?
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What is involved with encoding?  How does the level of encoding matter?  How can we  improve encoding?  Encoding involves forming a mental code.  The deeper the level of  encoding the longer the memory code will last.  Elaboration links a stimulus to other  information at the time of encoding, imagery uses visual images to represent the  words being memorized.   What are the differences between sensory, short-term, working, and long-term  memories? Sensory information remains in its original form for a few seconds.  Short-term memory  is a limited-capacity store that remains for 20 seconds unless rehearsed.  Working  memory evolved from short-term memory and still has small capacity and short duration  but it is more complex.  Long-term memory is an unlimited capacity store that holds  information for long periods of time. What evidence do researchers have that there are different types of (long-term) memories?   Recall of declarative memory requires effortful, conscious processes.  Recall of  procedural memory is automatic and requires little effort. What are these different types of long-term memory stores and how do they differ from one  another? Declarative memory is factual information.  It can be semantic or episodic.  Semantic  memory is general knowledge, but episode memory is a chronological memory of an  experience.  Procedural memory is actions, skills, emotional memories, or conditioned  response.
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