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101_S2010_Exam 3 REVIEW GUIDE

101_S2010_Exam 3 REVIEW GUIDE - 44 Questionspp ~14 Qs from...

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44 Questionspp ~14 Qs from Chapter 11 (Personality) ~15 Qs from Chapter 12 (Stress, Coping, &Health) ~15 Qs from Chapter 13 (Psychological Disorders) Please remember that this review guide is not comprehensive of all the concepts which may be tested upon during the exam. What is personality? Does it even exist? Personality refers to an individual’s unique collection of consistent behavioral traits. It explains consistency and distinctiveness of behavior According to the Big Five, what are the major components of personality? Extraversion-outgoing, sociable, assertive Neuroticism-anxious, hostile, insecure, self-conscious Openness-curiosity, flexibility, artistic, unconventional Agreeableness-sympathetic, trusting, modest, cooperative Conscientiousness-diligent, organized, punctual, dependable What was Freud’s theory of personality development? What did he believe was the structure of personality? o Id-instinctive component that operates with pleasure principle; pleasure principle demands immediate gratification; engages in primary-process thinking; raw biological urges; unconscious o Ego-decision making component; reality principle delays gratification of id’s urges until proper time/outlet; secondary-process thinking to maximize gratification; avoids negative consequences o Superego-moral component incorporating social standards about right and wrong; emerges out of ego between 3 and 5 years old; mainly unconscious Why did he believe there was an “unconscious?” o Freudian slips-revealed true feelings o Dreams express hidden desires
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o Psychoanalysis revealed feelings and conflicts patients were unaware of How did he believe personality developed? o Psychosexual stages of development with a sexual focus o Oral-first year; biting, sucking thumb, chewing; feeding experiences o Anal-second year; bowel movements; toilet training o Phallic-3-5 years; Oedipal Complex and penis envy; healthy development depends on Oedipal Complex o Latency-6-12 years; expanding social contacts o Genital-Puberty onward; sexual urges return; sexuality turned towards peers What were the criticisms of his theory? Any benefits? o Criticized for over-emphasis of sexuality, poor testability, inadequate evidence, sexism. o Benefited with unconscious, internal conflict, importance of early childhood, and defense mechanisms What are “defense mechanisms” and what did they do? o Defense mechanisms are unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions. o Rationalization-creating false, plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior o Repression-burying distressing thoughts in unconscious o Projection-attributing one’s feelings onto another o Displacement-taking emotions from original source to another target o Reaction formation-behaving in the exact opposite way of your true feelings o Regression-reversion to immature patterns o Identification-increasing esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with a group What did Adler believe were the critical factors involved with personality development?
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