BB_101_S2010_Stress

BB_101_S2010_Stress - Note: this outline is not to be...

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Note: this outline is not to be distributed or posted on other sites; that is copyright infringement It is very important to take detailed notes, to augment this outline. I. History o Past biology infections o Present: biopsychology chronic diseases health psychology II. Stress The definition that your textbook author gives you is really the definition for “stressor,” the agent which could cause you a stress experience. o Weiten: (StressOR): any circumstance(s) that threatens or is perceived to threaten one’s well-being and tax one’s coping abilities. Stress: the organism’s experience (triggered by the stressor) Stressors o whether or not something is a stressor is subjective Lazarus: appraisal o Types of stressors thwarted goal situations (which then cause frustration ) conflict approach-approach avoidance-avoidance approach-avoidance pressure change Holmes & Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) o by measuring change, they can gauge amount of stress
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o cons: lack of comprehensiveness strength of the stressor is subjective negative life events, not just “change” Daily hassles vs. major events (acute stressor) vs. chronic stressors III. Stress response (or just “stress”)—take a look at the figure below Four components to the stress experience 1. cognitive appraisal o Lazarus’ theory of cognitive appraisal primary appraisal secondary appraisal re-appraisal 2. emotional response o mostly negative, but some positive o tied to cognitions self-blame → guilt helplessness → sadness 3. physiological response o arousal & task performance: inverted U-hypothesis
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o SAM axis sympathetic nerves adrenal medulla → NE, Epi (Cannon) Fight or Flight response o HPAC axis hypothalamus → adrenal cortex → cortisol o Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome responses change over time Three stages Alarm (↑ SAM) Resistance (↑HPAC) Exhaustion non-specific response adaptation In this figure, the Y-axis is level of physiological arousal. The X-axis is time. 4. Behavioral response (this section is for recitation) Coping
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o Usually maladaptive coping: giving up/learned helplessness blaming oneself striking out indulging self e.g., drinking, overeating, smoking defensive coping e.g., Freud’s defense mechanisms, avoidance, wishful thinking often unconscious, self-deceptions less optimal small amount = mentally healthy o Usually constructive (or adaptive) problem-solving reasonably realistic appraisal of stressor & coping resources e.g., reappraisal (Ellis’s rational thinking) control of (disruptive) emotions e.g., humor, releasing pent-up emotions (NOT venting), managing hostility/forgiving others, learning to relax protecting body e.g., exercising, sleeping Three ways in which psychological factors (like stress) may influence
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BB_101_S2010_Stress - Note: this outline is not to be...

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