# 1 Start - What does Pyrometallurgy mean Introduction Extractive Metallurgy deals with the production of metals Pyro is from the Greek word for fire

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1 Introduction What does Pyrometallurgy mean? • Extractive Metallurgy deals with the production of metals Pyro is from the Greek word for fire ( πυρα ) • Pyrometallurgy is the art and science of extracting metals by thermal methods Economic importance of pyrometallurgy World production, t/a Price, US\$/t Value, US\$bn/a Pyrometallurgical production Iron / Steel 1 000 000 000 350 350 100% Aluminium 21 000 000 1370 29 100% Copper 14 000 000 1670 23 87% Zinc 8 000 000 787 6 98% Gold 2600 11 million 29 Platinum 180 21 million 4 100% Thermodynamics What is Thermodynamics? • Collection of useful mathematical quantities that are measurable • Principle of energy conservation • Principle of increasing entropy Ellingham diagram for the free energy of formation of metallic oxides

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2 “It is unworthy of excellent men to lose hours like slaves in the labour of calculation.” Leibnitz (1646 - 1716) Free Energy Minimization • How are energy requirements for reactions, and the compositions of reacting systems calculated today? • Thermodynamic databases FACT, Thermo-Calc, MTDATA, CSIRO-Monash, HSC, Thermo • Free Energy Minimizers Pyrosim, Metsim, Aspen, ChemSage, ChemApp, SolGasMix • Is there still a place for Ellingham diagrams and predominance area diagrams? Ellingham diagram for the free energy of formation of metallic sulphides State functions • Building blocks • Independent of path (e.g. altitude) H = H ( T , P ) S = S ( T , P ) G = G ( T , P ) • Need equation of state, e.g. PV = nRT Reference state • State functions should be calculated relative to elements in their standard states at 25°C and 1 atm. • This reference state keeps the theory very simple, and makes calculations independent of any particular reactions H, S, and G + + + Δ = T T P T T P o f dT C L dT C H H 1 2 1 298 1 1 298 + + + = T T P T T P o dT T C T L dT T C S S 1 2 1 298 1 1 298 G = H - T S C P (T) = a + bT + cT -2 + dT 2 (J/mol/K)
3 PRINCIPLE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION • First Law of Thermodynamics • q and w are thermal and mechanical modes of energy transfer Δ E k + Δ E p + Δ U = q + w • Applicable to constant-matter systems, and to flow processes Δ E k + Δ E p + Δ H = q + w s Simplified energy balance • Not ‘heat balance’ or ‘enthalpy balance’ Δ H = q + w s • Energy transferred can be calculated from a before-and-after difference in

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## This note was uploaded on 05/13/2011 for the course METALLURGY 1133 at Murdoch.

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1 Start - What does Pyrometallurgy mean Introduction Extractive Metallurgy deals with the production of metals Pyro is from the Greek word for fire

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