Midterm 1 Study Questions

Midterm 1 Study Questions - Study questions for NPB 152:...

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Study questions for NPB 152:  Exam I    These questions may or may not show up as written on the exam, but they are devised to  help guide your studying.  Conversely, there may be subjects not listed here that are fair  game for the exam. We will not provide an answer key, but if you are unsure what we are  asking, e-mail Dr. Hahn, Dr. Furlow  or our TA and come to our office hours, or come to  the review session next week (TBA).    1. Define a hormone. Biological signal molecules; organic molecules produced and  released into blood by endocrine (ductless) glands and tissues.  What must a cell have to  respond to a hormone? They need a receptor. How does a hormone differ from a  neurotransmitter? Neurotransmitters travel across a synaptic cleft. They act quickly and  are removed quickly. Hormones travel through the blood with the target cells being  [sometimes] far away.   2. What are the general ways in which hormones can influence behavior? Hormones  have two classes. Hormones that affect gene transcription are slow but longer lasting.  Hormones that go through second messenger systems are quicker acting.   Proximate:  Hormones do not cause the behavior. They affect the frequency and intensity of  expression. They also have organizational / activational effects. Ultiamte: Mechanistic  control of behavior affects fitness. Mechanisms shared by related taxa. Affects evolution  of both behavior and mechanisms underlying development and expression of it.   3. What are some specific effects that hormones have on neurons? “neuromodulators” Neurogenesis (new neurons) Apoptosis (death of neurons) Synaptogenesis (new synapses) Neuritogenesis (new inputs) Conduction velocity Alter membrane potential 4. Describe Berthold’s classic experiment.  What physiological and behavioral parameters were  measured?   o Castration  Caponization o Castration and reimplantation of testis  Normal male development o Castration and transplantation of testis  Normal male development Conclusions o Transplanted testes fully functional and birds develop normally
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Normal appearance Combs, wattles, plumage Normal behavior Vocalization, aggression, mating 5. Describe Tinbergen’s four questions relating to behavioral analysis. How does it develop? What mechanisms cause it? How did it evolve? How does it contribute to survival? 6. What is meant by ultimate vs. proximate causes of a behavioral trait?
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2011 for the course BIS 101 taught by Professor Simonchan during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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Midterm 1 Study Questions - Study questions for NPB 152:...

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