lecture-ch14 - Contents 14 Fluids 1 14.1 Fluids . . . . . ....

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Unformatted text preview: Contents 14 Fluids 1 14.1 Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 14.2 Density: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 14.3 Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 14.4 Fluids at rest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 14.5 The Mercury Barometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 14.6 The open tube manometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 14.7 Pascal’s Principle and the hydraulic lever . . . . . . . . . . . 5 14.7.1 The hydraulic lever; energy considerations. . . . . . . . 6 14.8 Buoyant Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 14.9 Archimedes’ principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 14.9.1 Ideal Fluids: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 14.9.2 Streamlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 14.10 Equation of Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 14.11 Bernoulli’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 14.11.1Bernoulli’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 14 Fluids In this chapter we will explore the behavior of fluids. In particular we will study the following: Static fluids: Pressure exerted by a static fluid Methods of measuring pressure Pascal’s principle Archimedes’ principle, buoyancy Real versus ideal Fluids in motion: fluids Equation of continuity Bernoulli’s equation 14.1 Fluids As the name implies a fluid is defined as a substance that can flow. Fluids conform to the boundaries of any container in which they are placed. A fluid cannot exert a force tangential to its surface. It can only exert a force perpendicular to its surface. Liquids and gases are classified together as fluids 1 to contrast them from solids. In crystalline solids the constituent atoms are organized in a rigid three dimensional regular array known as the lattice. 14.2 Density: Consider the fluid with a mass Δ m and volume Δ V . The density (symbol ρ ) is defined as the ratio of the mass over the volume. ρ = Δ m Δ V SI unit: kg/m 3 If the fluid is homogeneous the above equation has the form: ρ = m V 14.3 Pressure Consider the device shown in the insert of the following figure which is im- mersed in a fluid filled vessel. 2 The device can measure the normal force F exerted on its piston from the compression of the spring attached to the piston. We assume that the piston has an area A . The pressure p exerted by the fluid on the piston is defined as: p = F A The SI unit for pressure is N m 2 is known as the pascal (symbol: Pa ). Other units are the atmosphere ( atm ), the torr , and the lb/in 2 . The atm is defined as the average pressure of the atmosphere at sea level....
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2011 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Asdaf during the Spring '11 term at Universidad de San Buenaventura Bogota.

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lecture-ch14 - Contents 14 Fluids 1 14.1 Fluids . . . . . ....

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