lecture-ch17 - Contents 17 Waves-II 1 17.1 Sound Waves . ....

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Unformatted text preview: Contents 17 Waves-II 1 17.1 Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 17.2 The Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 17.3 Traveling Sound Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 17.4 Interfere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 17.5 Intensity and Sound Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 17.5.1 Variation of Intensity with Distance . . . . . . . . . . . 6 17.5.2 Decibel Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 17.6 Sources of Musical Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 17.6.1 For pipe with two open ends: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 17.6.2 For pipe with one open end: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 17.7 Frequency Range of Musical Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 17.7.1 Same Note (fundamental frequency), Different Sounds . 10 17.8 Beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 17.9 The Doppler Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 17.9.1 Detector Moving, Source Stationary . . . . . . . . . . . 12 17.9.2 Source Moving, Detector Stationary . . . . . . . . . . . 13 17.9.3 General Doppler Effect Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 17.10Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 17 Waves-II The physics of sound waves is the basis of many fields of research, ranging from physiology, acoustic engineering, aviation, paleontology, military science and biology. In this chapter we introduce fundamental concepts and explore the prop- erties of sound waves. 17.1 Sound Waves Wavefronts: surfaces over which the oscillations due to the sound wave have the same value, e.g.,, at maximum crest. Rays: directed lines perpendicular to the wavefronts, indicate direction the direction of travel of the wavefronts 1 17.2 The Speed of Sound Let s ( x, t ) represent the movement of fluid element at point x in the longi- tudinal direction. i.e., the fluid element at x in equilibrium is moved to the position x + s ( x, t ) under perturbation. The displacement s ( x, t ) may not be uniform and causes the compression or expansion of fluid and as a consequence, the pressure will vary and be differ- ent from the equilibrium pressure P .The fluid element between ( x, x + dx ) gets moves to ( x + s ( x, t ) , x + dx + s ( x + dx, t )) The fluid in the interval ( x, x + dx ) is moved to ( x, x + dx ) → ( x + s ( x, t ) , x + dx + s ( x + dx, t )) 2 The corresponding change of volume is...
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2011 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Asdaf during the Spring '11 term at Universidad de San Buenaventura Bogota.

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lecture-ch17 - Contents 17 Waves-II 1 17.1 Sound Waves . ....

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