lecture-ch18 - Contents 18 Temperature, Heat , and the...

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Unformatted text preview: Contents 18 Temperature, Heat , and the First law of thermodynamics 1 18.1 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 18.1.1 The Zeroth law of thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . 2 18.1.2 The triple point of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 18.1.3 The constant volume gas thermometer . . . . . . . . . 3 18.1.4 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 18.2 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 18.2.1 Linear expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 18.2.2 Volume Expansion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 18.3 Temperature and Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 18.4 The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids . . . . . . . . . 7 18.4.1 Heat Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 18.4.2 Specific Heat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 18.4.3 Molar Specific Heat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 18.4.4 Heats of Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 18.5 A closer look at heat and work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 18.6 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 18.6.1 Some special cases of the first law of thermodynamics . 10 18.7 Heat transfer mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 18.7.1 Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 18.7.2 Thermal conductors in serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 18.7.3 Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 18.7.4 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 18 Temperature, Heat , and the First law of thermodynamics In this chapter we will explore the following topics: Temperature and the Zeroth law of thermodynamics. Thermometers and temperature scales. Thermal expansion. Temperature and Heat Specific heat Heat of transformation. Heat, Work, and the First law of thermodynamics. Heat transfer mechanisms. 1 18.1 Temperature Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter. In what follows we will describe it and also study the methods used to measure it. It is an experi- mental fact that many properties of an object depend on temperature. For example the resistance R of a conductor . In the lower figure we plot the re- sistivity ρ of Copper as function of T . We can use R or any other parameter that depends on T to pin down the concept of temperature. The upper picture shows an instrument that measures the resistance R of a wire inside. Such an uncalibrated instrument is known as a thermoscope. A calibrated thermoscope is called a thermometer. 18.1.1 The Zeroth law of thermodynamics Consider picture (a) in the following figure. We place a thermoscope (body T ) in close contact with body A and the two objects are put inside a thick - walled insulated box. The reading of body T will eventually reach a constant value (137.04 in this example). We say that the two bodies are in thermal equilibrium. Every measurable parameter of 2 body A and T is stable. In addition, the two bodies have the same tempera-is stable....
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lecture-ch18 - Contents 18 Temperature, Heat , and the...

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