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Unformatted text preview: 1 Mycenaean Minoan Mesopotamia Sumerian Babylonian Cultures of the Ancient Mediterranean
2 Mesopotamia was a fertile farming area
3 Meso = middle, between Potamia = river land local conditions determined construction practices no local wood or stone meant that mud bricks were the primary building materia.
4 Geography allowed for trade and communication but also political rivalry and war 5 the world's earliest abstract writing, about 3100 BC called cuneiform: "wedge-shaped" Egyptians writing, with heiroglyphics, is pictographic 6 Temple precinct with ziggurat and royal palace Empire of Ur (in black above) 2100-2000 BCE Reconstruction of city of Ur
7 8 City of Ur earliest settlement 4000 BCE empire 2100 BCE Ur was built and rebuilt over 2000 years Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar built the exterior wall in the 6th c. BCE the ziggurat is from the oldest period, about 2400 BCE 9 Ziggurat of Ur -- built of sunbaked brick
10 Ziggurat of Ur
11 BABYLON on the Euphrates River two periods - 3000 BCE, and 6th c. BCE -walled town with moat that was filled by river -Ishtar Gate: main decorated gate in wall -Tower of Babel = Ziggurat -Hanging Gardens
12 Babylon's wall near Ishtar gate
13 Ishtar Gate - named for goddess of war 14 Babylon: Temple precinct of Marduk, patron god of Babylon, and ziggurat called Tower of Babel
15 Hanging Gardens of Babylon built in the 8th or the 6th c. BCE one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World 16 Ancient Mediterranean 2: the Minoan Civilization, Crete 3000-1100 BCE
17 Crete: an island in the Aegean Sea Its art represents the fertile environment of land and 18 sea. Art celebrates fertility and beauty The island's isolation meant the 19 culture was not warlike. 20 The legend of the Minotaur, a monster kept in a labyrinth Palace of Minos at Knossos was built on terraces on the hillside 21 Palace entrance 22 23 Plan: oriented around a central courtyard open space its complexity may be the labyrinth of myth Knossos today: heavily restored in the 19th century
24 sloped site required terraces mild climate meant little exterior wall
25 interior also reveals the complex multi-level organization 26 Drainage system, above Extensive storage, below 27 Queen's Megaron a throne room frescoes of dolphins and rosettes ornament the walls 28 29 A reconstruction shows links between interior rooms and exterior courtyards 30 King's megaron or throne room frescoes of plants and griffons (head of an eagle, body of a lion) 31 Fresco of bull jumping The palace courtyard: a central, focal space for ceremony. 32 Later Greek myth of Europa and the Bull 33 34 Ancient Mediterranean 3: Mycenaean civilization c 1500 BCE Mycenaeans were warriors their war-like civilization that required fortified architecture 35 The Iliad of Homer is the story of the Trojan War between the Greeks and the Trojans. It probably dates about 1300 BCE. Among the heroes are Achilles, a Greek, and Hector, the son of the Trojan king Priam.
36 Mycenae a powerfully fortified city on a hilltop called an acropolis acro = high polis = city 37 Fortifications were built with enormous blocks called cylopean walls 38 39 aerial view of Mycenae today Mycenae: Lion Gate 40 Site plan showing walls
41 Site remains today 42 43 Portals and passageways constructed of corbelled arches King's audience hall = Megaron most protected place in the acropolis
44 Tiryns: acropolis with walls and guard towers 45 46 Tiryns: Plan of the acropolis shows megaron in the central, most protected position and the wide, strong walls audience hall anteroom porch Tiryns: megaron reconstructionplan and Megaron: and plan. section 47 48 Reproduction showing exterior of megaron. Note two columns in antis. 49 The Mycenaean world became the foundation of the classical Greek world. Its heroic sagas became the founding myths of Greece, and the 50 Mycenaean megaron is considered the basis for the Greek temple. ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/15/2011 for the course ARCH 150 taught by Professor Deines during the Spring '08 term at University of Washington.
- Spring '08
- The Iliad