chapter_01 - 8/29/2010 Properties of Matter Chapter 1:...

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8/29/2010 1 Chapter 1: Chemistry and Measurement Dr. Vasudha Sharma Valencia Community College CHM 1045 1 Properties of Matter Chemistry: The study of composition, properties, and transformations of matter Matter: Hypothesis: Interpretation of results Theory: Consistent explanation of observations 2 Conservation of Mass Law of Mass Conservation: Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. 3 Example 1: Conservation of Mass C (s) + O 2(g) CO 2(g) a) 12.3g C reacts with 32.8g O 2 , ?g CO 2 b) 0.238g C reacts with ?g O 2 to make .873g CO 2 c) ?g C reacts with 1.63g O 2 to make 2.24g CO 2 4 Dalton’s Atomic Theory Law of Definite Proportions: Different samples of a pure chemical substance always contain the same proportion of elements by mass. – Any sample of H 2 O contains 2 hydrogen atoms for every oxygen atom 5 Matter Matter is any substance that has mass and occupies volume. • Matter exists in one of three physical states: – solid – liquid – gas 6
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8/29/2010 2 7 Gases • In a gas, the particles of matter are far apart and uniformly distributed throughout the container. • Gases have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container. • Gases can be compressed and have an indefinite volume. • Gases have the most energy of the three states of matter. 8 Liquid • In a liquid, the particles of matter are loosely packed and are free to move past one another. • Liquids have an indefinite shape and assume the shape of their container. • Liquids cannot be compressed and have a definite volume. • Liquids have less energy than gases but more energy than solids. 9 Solid • In a solid, the particles of matter are tightly packed together. • Solids have a definite, fixed shape. • Solids cannot be compressed and have a definite volume. • Solids have the least energy of the three states of matter. 10 Phases 11 Changes in Physical State • Most substances can exist as either a solid, liquid, or gas. • Water exists as a solid below 0 C; as a liquid between 0 C and 100 C; and as a gas above 100 C. • A substance can change physical states as the temperature changes. 12 Solid Liquid • When a solid changes to a liquid, the phase change is called melting . – A substance melts as the temperature increases. • When a liquid changes to a solid, the phase change is called freezing . – A substance freezes as the temperature decreases.
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8/29/2010 3 13 Liquid Gas • When a liquid changes to a gas, the phase change is called vaporization . • A substance vaporizes as the
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chapter_01 - 8/29/2010 Properties of Matter Chapter 1:...

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