Experiment 10
EXPERIMENTING WITH GAS LAWS
I.
Learning Objectives…
±
To introduce the relationship between the pressure and the volume of a
confined gas.
(
Boyle's Law
)
±
To investigate the relationship between the pressure and temperature of a
confined gas.
(
Gay-Lussac's Law
)
II.
Background Information
A gas is defined as the state of matter in which widely separated molecules move in a
random and chaotic fashion in a volume defined by the size of the container.
Four
quantities are used to describe gases:
pressure, volume, temperature, and quantity (moles).
The
ideal gas law
describes the relationship between these properties with an equation.
PV = nRT
where:
P = pressure (atm)
V = volume (L)
n = mole
T = temperature (K)
R = gas constant (0.0821 L
•
atm/K
•
mol)
Under standard conditions of temperature and pressure (273.15 K, 1.0 atm pressure), 1
mole of gas occupies 22.414 L for an
ideal gas
.
Substituting these values into the ideal gas
equation above, the gas constant (R) is 0.08206 L
•
atm/K
•
mol.
Experimentally, a value of
R can be determined for a gas by carefully measuring P, V, n, and T for a given sample of
gas and using the ideal gas equation to solve for R.
The objective of this experiment is to introduce two relationships that illustrate the
interrelated properties of gases.
First, the relationship between the pressure and volume of
a confined gas is investigated.
Historically, this relationship was first established by
Robert Boyle in 1662 and has since been known as
Boyle’s Law
.
The gas used in this
experiment is air (actually a mixture of gases), which has a molar mass of 28.96 g/mol and
a density of 0.001185 g/mL at room temperature (25
o
C, 273K).
In this experiment air is

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