History of Federal Indian Policy

History of Federal Indian Policy - History of Federal...

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History of Federal Indian Policy 1850s to Present
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Period of Hostilities- 1860s-1870s 1864 – Sand Creek Massacre- Methodist minister and group of renegade soldiers and volunteers kill 105 Indian women and children, 28 men. 1866- Fetterman Massacre- led by Crazy Horse; ambush in which 80 soldiers killed. 1866 – Decision that 14 th Amendment does not apply to Indians. 1868 – U.S. Army to abandon forts in what would become Great Sioux Reservation; 9 treaties signed with Sioux; Indian Peace Committee decides on three reasons Indians and whites cannot co-exist: race, custom, language 1876- Custer and the Battle of Little Bighorn. (Montana)
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Reservation Era, 1850s-1887 Tribes were asked or forced to give up right to their lands via treaties and asked or methodically removed to “reserved” lands set aside for them where they could be safe and live apart from white people and governments. Reservation land grew from large tracts of Indian Territory to smaller and more remote tracts of land. End of treaty-making in 1871. Significance?
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What was lost? Independence—growing sense of dependence on Federal government. Loss of tribal religion which was outlawed in practice until late 20th century. Indian understanding of laws and concepts of justice as American courts and legal system imposed.
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History of Federal Indian Policy - History of Federal...

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