Study Guide - Regulation 1 Pyruvate dehydrogenase 2 Citrate...

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Regulation 1.) Pyruvate dehydrogenase Acetyl- CoA, ATP, NADH 2.) Citrate Synthase Succinyl-CoA, citrate, ATP, NADH 3.) Isocitrate dehydrogenase ATP, NADH 4.) alpha Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase Succinyl- CoA, NADH Amphibolic Steps of Kreb’s 1.) Citrate Acetyl- CoA fatty acids 3.) alpha- ketogluturate glutamate 4.) succinyl-CoA Heme/chlorophyll 8.) Oxaloacetate asparate, pyramidines, glucose Summary of the Citric Acid Cycle Acetyl-CoA + 3NAD+ +FAD + GDP + Pi + 2H2O 2CO2 + 3 NADH + FADH2 +GTP+3H+ Purpose- To produce electrons for the electron transport chain Chemiosmotic theory ATP synthesis is coupled to electron transport by an electrochemical proton gradient across a membrane. The electron transport chain moves protons into the intermembrane space. The protons then go in to the ATP synthase which creates ATP. Oxidative Stress Excessive production of reactive oxygen species Where? In the Mitochondria Why? Because of oxygen free radicals Chemical that stops it – antioxidants, Vitamin C, Ascorbate, B- carotene Enzyme that stops it- Superoxide dismutase
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