This outline can be a helpful study tool to assist you in seeing the order and sequence of the chapter and
the relationship of ideas. Use it to take notes as you read and/or to add concepts presented in lecture.
I. One's self-concept shapes perceptions of self and others and influences communication with
A. Self-concept is our view of our own characteristics while self-esteem is our judgment or
evaluation of our characteristics.
B. Reflected appraisal by significant others shapes one's identity.
C. Cultures impact self-concept through language, names, and values and by emphasizing
and rewarding different behaviors.
D. Personality, which appears to be at least partly innate, influences both self-concept and
E. Self-fulfilling prophecies exert a powerful, positive or negative influence on
communication, whether they are self-constructed prophecies or those constructed by
II. Our perceptions of others shape the way we communicate through them
A. We make sense of others behavior through selection, organization and interpretation.
A. Our data selection process is influenced by intense contrast or change in stimuli
as well as by internal factors (motives) and our emotional state.
B. We organize our perceptions of other people using perceptual schema including
four constructs: physical, role, interaction and psychological.
C. Interpretation plays in a role in every type of communication and is based on our
degree of involvement, relational satisfaction, personal experience and our
assumptions about human behavior.
B. Our own narratives, perceptual tendencies, situational factors, culture, and degree of
empathy all shape our perceptions and consequently, our communication.
C. By telling our stories, our narratives help us make sense of the world; creating shared
narratives with others enhances our mutual communication.
D. Common but often inaccurate perceptual tendencies (attribution) influence us.
A. making snap judgments
B. judging ourselves more charitably than others (self-serving bias)
C. paying more attention to negative impressions than positive ones
D. allowing ourselves to be influenced by what is most obvious—the most intense,
repetitious or contrastive stimuli (motives play a part)
E. clinging to first impressions
F. assuming others are similar to us
E. Culture influences perception by providing different filters, such as the value of talk and
silence, eye contact, and other nonverbal behaviors. One's ethnocentrism must be
recognized and addressed.
F. Empathy is a blend of taking another's cognitive and emotional perspective with having
genuine concern for the other.
A. Dimensions of empathy include perspective taking, an emotional dimension as
well as a genuine concern for the welfare of another person.
B. Empathy differs from sympathy, which involves compassion, not identification.