This outline can be a helpful study tool to assist you in seeing the order and sequence of the chapter and
the relationship of ideas. Use it to take notes as you read and/or to add concepts presented in lecture.
I. Replacing misconceptions about listening with accurate beliefs can improve listening.
A. Hearing is a physiological process; listening is psychological and involves attending,
understanding, responding, and remembering (the residual message).
B. Listening is not a natural process, but one that we can improve on.
C. Mindful listening requires a great deal of effort to do well; mindless listening is low-
level information processing.
D. Listeners have different interpretations while hearing the same message.
II. To improve listening, try to understand the many types of faulty listening and overcome various
barriers to listening.
A. Improve listening by avoiding these faulty listening behaviors: pseudolistening, selective
listening, defensive listening, ambushing, insulated listening, insensitive listening, and
B. Improve listening by eliminating or minimizing these barriers: (not specifically
mentioned) message overload, rapid thought, psychological noise, physical noise,
hearing problems, faulty assumptions, apparent advantages of talking, cultural
differences, and media influences.
III.Identify and be aware of your own and others' personal listening styles.
A. Content-oriented listeners pay careful attention to the particulars and the specific details.
B. People-oriented listeners focus on the speaker's emotional state and relational issues.
C. Action-oriented listeners center their listening on the mission and listen to better achieve
D. Time-oriented listeners are conscious of how long the conversation is taking and may be
distracted or anxious with lengthy speakers.
IV.Informational listening requires effort and strategy in order to better understand another person.
A. Don't argue with the speaker or judge remarks prematurely.
B. Listen to the message even if you dislike the speaker.
C. Take the opportunity to learn from all speakers, whether skilled or not.
D. Listen for key ideas, not minute details or tangential remarks.
E. Ask sincere questions, not counterfeit questions.
F. Paraphrase the speaker by putting thoughts and feelings into your own words, offering
examples of what you think the speaker is talking about and reflecting the underlying
theme of the speaker's remarks.
G. Record key ideas by developing and using a note-taking technique.
V. Critical (evaluative) listening requires you to listen and evaluate what you hear.
A. Listen for complete information before evaluating the speaker.