0085-Post tensioning tendon installation and grouting manual BY US Federal Highway administration.pd - Post-Tensioning Tendon Installation and Grouting

0085-Post tensioning tendon installation and grouting manual BY US Federal Highway administration.pd

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Unformatted text preview: Post-Tensioning Tendon Installation and Grouting Manual May 26, 2004 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 Federal Highway Administration Post- Tensioning Tendon Installation and Grouting Manual Preface This Manual includes state-of-the-art information relative to materials, post-tensioning systems, construction practices and grouting of post-tensioning tendons for bridges. The Manual is targeted at Federal, State and local transportation department and private company personnel that may be involved in the design, inspection, construction or maintenance of bridges that contain post-tensioning tendons. This Manual will serve as a reference and guide to designers, inspectors and construction personnel for post-tensioning materials, installation and grouting of bridge tendons. The document is part of the Federal Highway Administration’s national technology deployment program and may serve as a training manual. Preface 1 of 1 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 Federal Highway Administration Post-Tensioning Tendon Installation and Grouting Manual Overall Contents Overall Contents List of Figures and Tables Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Post-Tensioning System Materials and Components Chapter 3 Post-Tensioning Duct and Tendon Installation Chapter 4 Grouting of Post-Tensioning Tendons Appendix A Terminology Appendix B Personnel Qualifications Appendix C Further Examples of Post-Tensioning Tendon Applications Appendix D Corrosion Protection of Post-Tensioning Tendons Appendix E Bibliography Metric Conversion Factors Overall Contents 1 of 1 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 Federal Highway Administration Post-Tensioning Tendon Installation and Grouting Manual List of Figures and Tables Chapter 1 Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5 Figure 1.6 Figure 1.7 Figure 1.8 Figure 1.9 Figure 1.10 Figure 1.11 Figure 1.12 Figure 1.13 Figure 1.14 Figure 1.15 Figure 1.16 Figure 1.17 Figure 1.18 Figure 1.19 Figure 1.20 Figure 1.21 Figure 1.22 Reinforced concrete beam under load Comparison of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Beams Typical Post-Tensioning Anchorage Hardware for Strand Tendons Typical Post-Tensioning Bar System Hardware Typical Post-Tensioning Bar System Hardware Cast-In-Place Post-Tensioned Construction in California Spliced Haunched I-Girder of Main Span Unit Erection Sequence and Temporary Supports for Spliced I-Girder Cast-In-Place Segmental Construction using Form Travelers Foothills Parkway, Tennessee Precast Segmental Balanced Cantilever Construction Typical Balanced Cantilever Segment Bottom Continuity Tendons for Balanced Cantilever Construction Span-By-Span Construction Interior Span Post-Tensioning for Span-By-Span Construction Post-Tensioning in Hammerhead Piers Post-Tensioning in Straddle Bents Post-Tensioning in Cantilever Piers Precast Hollow Segmental Piers, Linn Cove Viaduct, North Carolina Precast I-Piers Natchez Trace Parkway Arches, Tennessee Temporary PT Bars for Segment Erection Chapter 2 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Standard and Modified ASTM C939 Flow Cone Test Wick Induced Bleed Test Bleed Under Pressure Test (Gelman Filtration Funnel) Spiral Wound Steel Duct and Rigid Steel Pipe Corrugated Plastic Duct Basic Anchor Plate Multi-plane Anchor PT-Bar Anchor Plate Permanent (Plastic) Grout Cap to Anchor Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Chapter 3 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Permissible Bleed Under Pressure Physical Properties Required for Shrink Sleeves Typical Shop Drawing Approval Process for Post-Tensioning Tendon Profile in Four-Span I-Girder Calculated Tendon Force after Losses External Deviated Tendon in End Span External Tendon Force after Friction and Wedge Set On-Site Friction Test List of Figures and Tables 1 of 3 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 3.11 Figure 3.12 Figure 3.13 Figure 3.14 Figure 3.15 Figure 3.16 Figure 3.17 Figure 3.18 Figure 3.19 Figure 3.20 Figure 3.21 Figure 3.22 Figure 3.23 Figure 3.24 Figure 3.25 Figure 3.26 Figure 3.27 Figure 3.28 Figure 3.29 Figure 3.30 Figure 3.31 Figure 3.32 Figure 3.33 On-Site Bench Test for Modulus of Elasticity Basic Anchor Bearing Plate Multi-Plane Anchor Anchor Plate for PT-Bar General and Local Anchor Zone in End of I-Girder Local Zone Reinforcing for Edge Anchor in Thin Slab Duct Spacing and Clearance in Post-Tensioned Precast Girders Check Longitudinal and Transverse Duct Alignments Anchor Recess and Checking of Duct Alignment Unacceptable Duct Connections and Mistakes Duct Supports in Post-Tensioned Precast I-Girders A Possible Result of Poorly Supported and Connected Ducts Connections for Secondary, Vacuum Grouting, Operations Unintentional Excess Wobble Excess Wobble Due to Rebar and Duct Conflict Duct Size in Post-Tensioned Girders Placing Concrete in Box Segments Use of Internal Vibrators for Consolidation of Concrete Steel Wire Sock for Installing Multi-Strand Tendon Monostrand Jack Typical Multi-Strand, Center Hole, Stressing Jack Prestressing Bar Jack Jack Calibration Calibration Chart for Pressure Gauge and Jack Force Alternate End Stressing Stresses Along Tendon for Different Modes of Stressing Anchor Set or Wedge Set Table 3.1(a) Table 3.1(b) Example 1: Elongation of Profiled Tendon in Four-Span Girder (Fig. 3.2) Example 1 continued: Elongation of Profiled Tendon in Four-Span Girder (Fig. 3.3) Example 2: Elongation of External Deviated Tendon in End-Span (Fig. 3.4) Stressing Report – Example 1: Profiled Tendon in Four-Span Girder (Figs. 3.2 and 3.3) Stressing Report – Example 1 continued: Profiled Tendon in Four-Span Girder (Figs 3.2 and 3.3) Table 3.2 Table 3.3(a) Table 3.3(b) Chapter 4 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Grout Mixing and Pumping Equipment Vacuum Grouting Equipment Grouting Details for a Two-Span Spliced Girder Duct System Grouting Details for a Four-Span Spliced Girder Duct System Grouting Details for a Three-Span, Drop-In and Spliced Girder Duct System Grouting Details for Cellular Box, Voided or Solid Slab Duct System Grouting of Cantilever (at Top Continuity) Tendons Grouting Bottom Continuity Tendons in Variable Depth Box Girders Grouting Details for End Span, External Tendon Grouting Vent Locations at Pier Segments in Span-By-Span Bridges Possible Grout and Drainage Connections for Bottom External Tendons List of Figures and Tables 2 of 3 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13 Figure 4.14 5/26/2004 Grouting Details for Lateral Tendons in Hammerhead Pier Cap Grouting and Anchor Details for Vertical Tendons in Piers Grouting Details and Anchor Protection for Vertical and Lateral Tendons in C-Pier Appendix C Figure C.1 Figure C.2 Figure C.3 Figure C.4 Figure C.5 Figure C.6 Figure C.7 Figure C.8 Figure C.9 Figure C.10 Figure C.11 Figure C.12 Figure C.13 Figure C.14 Cantilever Post-Tensioning Tendons Anchored on End Faces Cantilever Post-Tensioning Tendons Anchored in Top Blisters Bottom Continuity Tendons for Balanced Cantilever Construction Top Continuity Tendons for Balanced Cantilever Construction Bottom Continuity Tendons Near Expansion Joint at a Support In-Span Hinges in Balanced Cantilever Construction Expansion Joint Span Post-Tensioning for Span-By-Span Construction External/Internal Tendons Construction of the Linn Cove Viaduct Transverse Post-Tensioning in the Top Slab of Box Girder Transverse Post-Tensioning in Diaphragms Vertical Post-Tensioning in Diaphragms Transverse Post-Tensioning in Deviation Ribs Vertical Post-Tensioning in Webs Appendix D Figure D.1 Figure D.2 Figure D.3 Figure D.4 Figure D.5 Figure D.6 Figure D.7 Figure D.8 Figure D.9 Figure D.10 Figure D.11 Figure D.12 Figure D.13 Levels of Protection for Corrosion Protection Levels of Protection to Internal Tendons Levels of Protection to External Tendons Sealing of Inlets and Outlets along Internal Tendons Sealing of Inlets and Outlets along External Tendon Anchor Protection Details at End Anchorages Anchor Protection Details at Top Anchorages Anchor Protection at Interior Piers Anchor Protection for Cantilever Tendons Anchored in Blisters Protection of Individual Anchorages at Expansion Joints Protection of a Group of Anchors at an Expansion Joint Segment Anchorage Protection at Expansion Joints Possible Detail for Embedded Face Anchor List of Figures and Tables 3 of 3 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 Federal Highway Administration Post- Tensioning Tendon Installation and Grouting Manual Chapter 1 - Introduction Contents 1.1 Objective 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2 Permanent Post-Tensioned Applications 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.3 Benefits of Post-Tensioning Principle of Prestressing Post-Tensioning Operations Post-Tensioning Systems Cast-in-Place Bridges on Falsework Post-Tensioned AASHTO, Bulb-T, and Spliced Girders Cast-in-Place Segmental Cantilever Bridges Precast Segmental Balanced Cantilever Bridges 1.2.4.1 Typical Features of Precast Cantilever Segments 1.2.4.2 Cantilever Tendons 1.2.4.3 Continuity Tendons Precast Segmental Span-by-Span Bridges Transverse Post-Tensioning of Superstructures Post-Tensioning of Substructures 1.2.7.1 Hammerhead Piers 1.2.7.2 Straddle Bents 1.2.7.3 Cantilever Piers 1.2.7.4 Precast Piers 1.2.7.5 Precast Segmental Box Section Arches 1.2.7.6 Transverse, Confinement Tendons at Tops of Piers Temporary Longitudinal Post-Tensioning (Bars) - Typical Applications 1.3.1 Erection of Precast Cantilever Segments 1.3.2 Closure of Epoxy Joints in Span-by-Span Erection Chapter 1 - Introduction 1 of 19 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 Chapter 1 - Introduction 1.1 Objective One of the major advancements in bridge construction in the United States in the second half of the twentieth century was the development and use of prestressed concrete. Prestressed concrete bridges, offer a broad range of engineering solutions and a variety of aesthetic opportunities. The objective of this Manual is to provide guidance to individuals involved in the installation or inspection of post-tensioning work for post tensioned concrete bridges including post-tensioning systems, materials, installation and grouting of tendons. 1.1.1 Benefits of Post-Tensioning The tensile strength of concrete is only about 10% of its compressive strength. As a result, plain concrete members are likely to crack when loaded. In order to resist tensile stresses which plain concrete cannot resist, it can be reinforced with steel reinforcing bars. Reinforcing is selected assuming that the tensile zone of the concrete carries no load and that tensile stresses are resisted only by tensile forces in the reinforcing bars. The resulting reinforced concrete member may crack, but it can effectively carry the design loads (Figure 1.1). Although cracks occur in reinforced concrete, the cracks are normally very small and uniformly distributed. However, cracks in reinforced concrete can reduce long-term durability. Introducing a means of precompressing the tensile zones of concrete members to offset anticipated tensile stresses reduces or eliminates cracking to produce more durable concrete bridges. 1.1.2 Principle of Prestressing The function of prestressing is to place the concrete structure under compression in those regions where load causes tensile stress. Tension caused by the load will first have to cancel the compression induced by the prestressing before it can crack the concrete. Figure 1.2 (a) shows a plainly reinforced concrete simple-span beam and fixed cantilever beam cracked under applied load. Figure 1.2(b) shows the same unloaded beams with prestressing forces applied by stressing high strength tendons. By placing the prestressing low in the simple-span beam and high in the cantilever beam, compression is induced in the tension zones; creating upward camber. Figure 1.2(c) shows the two prestressed beams after loads have been applied. The loads cause both the simple-span beam and cantilever beam to deflect down, creating tensile stresses in the bottom of the simple-span beam and top of the cantilever beam. The Bridge Chapter 1 - Introduction 2 of 19 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 Designer balances the effects of load and prestressing in such a way that tension from the loading is compensated by compression induced by the prestressing. Tension is eliminated under the combination of the two and tension cracks are prevented. Also, construction materials (concrete and steel) are used more efficiently ; optimizing materials, construction effort and cost. (a) Reinforced concrete cracked under load. (b) Post-tensioned concrete before loading. (c) Post-tensioned concrete after loading. Simply-Supported Beam Cantilever Beam Figure 1.2 - Comparison of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Beams Prestressing can be applied to concrete members in two ways, by pretensioning or posttensioning. In pretensioned members the prestressing strands are tensioned against restraining bulkheads before the concrete is cast. After the concrete has been placed, allowed to harden and attain sufficient strength, the strands are released and their force is transferred to the concrete member. Prestressing by post-tensioning involves installing and stressing prestressing strand or bar tendons only after the concrete has been placed, hardened and attained a minimum compressive strength for that transfer. 1.1.3 Post-Tensioning Operation Compressive forces are induced in a concrete structure by tensioning steel tendons of strands or bars placed in ducts embedded in the concrete. The tendons are installed after the concrete has been placed and sufficiently cured to a prescribed initial compressive strength. A hydraulic jack is attached to one or both ends of the tendon and pressurized to a predetermined value while bearing against the end of the concrete beam. This induces a predetermined force in the tendon and the tendon elongates elastically under this force. After jacking to the full, required force, the force in the tendon is transferred from the jack to the end anchorage. Tendons made up of strands are secured by steel wedges that grip each strand and seat firmly in a wedge plate. The wedge plate itself carries all the strands and bears on a steel anchorage. The anchorage may be a simple steel bearing plate or may be a special casting with two or three concentric bearing surfaces that transfer the tendon force to the concrete. Bar tendons are usually threaded and anchor by means of spherical nuts that bear against a square or Chapter 1 - Introduction 3 of 19 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 rectangular bearing plate cast into the concrete. For an explanation of post-tensioning terminology and acronyms, see Appendix A. After stressing, protruding strands or bars of permanent tendons are cut off using an abrasive disc saw. Flame cutting should not be used as it negatively affects the characteristics of the prestressing steel. Approximately 20mm (¾ in) of strand is left to protrude from wedges or a certain minimum bar length is left beyond the nut of a bar anchor. Tendons are then grouted using a cementitious based grout. This grout is pumped through a grout inlet into the duct by means of a grout pump. Grouting is done carefully under controlled conditions using grout outlets to ensure that the duct anchorage and grout caps are completely filled. For final protection, after grouting, an anchorage may be covered by a cap of high quality grout contained in a permanent non-metallic and/or concrete pour-back with a durable seal-coat. Post-tensioning and grouting operations require certain levels of experience, as outlined in Appendix B. 1.1.4 Post-Tensioning Systems Many proprietary post-tensioning systems are available. Several suppliers produce systems for tendons made of wires, strands or bars. The most common systems found in bridge construction are multiple strand systems for permanent post-tensioning tendons and bar systems for both temporary and permanent situations. Refer to manufacturers’ and suppliers’ literature for details of available systems. Key features of three common systems (multiplestrand and bar tendons) are illustrated in Figures 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5. Grout injection port Wedge Plate Strand Grout Cap Duct Wedges Trumpet or cone Anchor plate Anchor bearing area Grout Cap Duct Anchor head Anchorage Figure 1.3 - Typical Post-Tensioning Anchorage Hardware for Strand Tendons. Chapter 1 - Introduction 4 of 19 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 Figure 1.4 – Typical Post-Tensioning Bar System Hardware. (Courtesy of Dywidag Systems International) Figure 1.5 – Typical Post-Tensioning Bar System Hardware (Courtesy of Williams Form Engineering Corporation) Chapter 1 - Introduction 5 of 19 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 1.2 Permanent Post-Tensioned Applications 1.2.1 Cast-in-Place Bridges on Falsework 5/26/2004 Bridges of this type have a superstructure cross-section of solid or cellular construction. They are built on-site using formwork supported by temporary falsework (Figure 1.6). Formwork creates the shape of the concrete section and any internal voids or diaphragms. Reinforcement and post-tensioning ducts are installed in the forms and then the concrete is placed, consolidated and cured. When the concrete attains sufficient strength, post-tensioning is installed and stressed to predetermined forces. Figure 1.6 – Cast-In-Place Post-Tensioned Construction in California. Longitudinal post-tensioning typically comprises multi-strand tendons smoothly draped to a designed profile. In continuous spans, the tendon profile lies in the bottom of the section in the mid-span region and rises to the top of the section over interior supports. In simple spans and at the expansion ends of continuous spans, post-tensioning anchors are arranged vertically so that the resultant of the tendon anchor force passes close to the centroid of the section. A draped profile of this type provides the most effective distribution of internal prestress for this type of construction. 1.2.2 Post-Tensioned AASHTO, Bulb-T, and Spliced Girders Precast, post-tensioned AASHTO and bulb-T girders are usually pre-tensioned sufficiently at the precast plant to carry their own self weight for transportation to the site and erection. On site, girders are first erected as simple spans. However, over the interior piers of a three or fourspan unit, they are made continuous by cast-in-place joints that connect the girder ends and form transverse, reinforced diaphragms. Post tensioning ducts cast into the webs are spliced through the cast-in-place joints. The ducts follow a smoothly curved, draped profile along each girder line, rising to the top of the girders over the interior piers and draping to the bottom flange in mid-span regions. Before the deck slab is cast, some or all of the tendons running the full length of the multi-span unit are installed and stressed, making each simple span I-girder into a series of continuous spans. When the Chapter 1 - Introduction 6 of 19 FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION POST-TENSIONING TENDON INSTALLATION AND GROUTING MANUAL 5/26/2004 deck slab has been cast and cured, additional tendons may be installed and stressed on the fully composite section. Te...
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