P REFACE Beginning with the introduction of commercial manufacturing of integrated circuits (ICs) in the early 1960s, modern electronics testing has a history of more than 40 years. The integrated circuit was developed in 1958, concurrently at Texas Instru-ments (TI) and Fairchild Semiconductor. Today, semiconductors lie at the heart of ongoing advances across the electronics industry. The industry enjoyed a banner year in 2005, with almost $230 billion in sales worldwide. The introduction of new technologies, especially nanometer technologies with 90 nm or smaller geometry, has allowed the semiconductor industry to keep pace with increased performance-capacity demands from consumers. This has bright-ened the prospects for future industry growth; however, new technologies come with new challenges. Semiconductor test costs have been growing steadily. Test costs can now amount to 40% of overall product cost. In addition, product quality and yield could drop significantly if these chips are not designed for testability and
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