32_pdfsam_VLSI TEST PRINCIPLES & ARCHITECTURES

32_pdfsam_VLSI TEST PRINCIPLES & ARCHITECTURES -...

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CHAPTER 1 I NTRODUCTION Yinghua Min Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China Charles Stroud Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama ABOUT THIS CHAPTER The introduction of integrated circuits (ICs), commonly referred to as microchips or simply chips , was accompanied by the need to test these devices. Small-scale integration (SSI) devices, with tens of transistors in the early 1960s, and medium- scale integration (MSI) devices, with hundreds of transistors in the late 1960s, were relatively simple to test. However, in the 1970s, large-scale integration (LSI) devices, with thousands and tens of thousands of transistors, created a number of challenges when testing these devices. In the early 1980s, very-large-scale integra- tion (VLSI) devices with hundreds of thousands of transistors were introduced. Steady advances in VLSI technology have resulted in devices with hundreds of millions of transistors and many new testing challenges. This chapter provides an
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