CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONYinghua MinInstitute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, ChinaCharles StroudElectrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AlabamaABOUT THIS CHAPTERThe introduction ofintegrated circuits(ICs), commonly referred to asmicrochipsor simplychips, was accompanied by the need to test these devices.Small-scaleintegration(SSI) devices, with tens of transistors in the early 1960s, andmedium-scale integration(MSI) devices, with hundreds of transistors in the late 1960s,were relatively simple to test. However, in the 1970s,large-scale integration(LSI)devices, with thousands and tens of thousands of transistors, created a number ofchallenges when testing these devices. In the early 1980s,very-large-scale integra-tion(VLSI) devices with hundreds of thousands of transistors were introduced.Steady advances in VLSI technology have resulted in devices with hundreds ofmillions of transistors and many new testing challenges. This chapter provides an
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