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2 VLSI Test Principles and Architectures on a feature size of less than 100 nanometers (100 nm). The reduction in feature size has also resulted in increased operating frequencies and clock speeds; for example, in 1971, the first microprocessor ran at a clock frequency of 108 KHz, while current commercially available microprocessors commonly run at several gigahertz. The reduction in feature size increases the probability that a manufacturing defect in the IC will result in a faulty chip. A very small defect can easily result in a faulty transistor or interconnecting wire when the feature size is less than 100 nm. Furthermore, it takes only one faulty transistor or wire to make the entire chip fail to function properly or at the required operating frequency. Yet, defects created during the manufacturing process are unavoidable, and, as a result, some number of ICs is expected to be faulty; therefore, testing is required to guarantee fault-
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