4VLSI Test Principles and Architecturesspecifications, voltage, and current. In addition, burn-in or stress testing is oftenperformed where chips are subjected to high temperatures and supply voltage. Thepurpose of burn-in testing is to accelerate the effect of defects that could lead tofailures in the early stages of operation of the IC.Failure mode analysis(FMA) istypically used at all stages of IC manufacturing testing to identify improvementsto processes that will result in an increase in the number of defect-free devicesproduced.Design verification and yield are not only important aspects of the VLSI develop-ment process but are also important in VLSI testing. The following two subsectionsprovide more detail on verification and yield, while their relationship to and impacton testing are discussed throughout this chapter.126.96.36.199Design VerificationA VLSI design can be described at different levels of abstraction, as illustrated inFigure 1.3. The design process is essentially a process of transforming a higher
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Electronic design automation, Application-specific integrated circuit, VLSI Test Principles