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4 VLSI Test Principles and Architectures specifications, voltage, and current. In addition, burn-in or stress testing is often performed where chips are subjected to high temperatures and supply voltage. The purpose of burn-in testing is to accelerate the effect of defects that could lead to failures in the early stages of operation of the IC. Failure mode analysis (FMA) is typically used at all stages of IC manufacturing testing to identify improvements to processes that will result in an increase in the number of defect-free devices produced. Design verification and yield are not only important aspects of the VLSI develop- ment process but are also important in VLSI testing. The following two subsections provide more detail on verification and yield, while their relationship to and impact on testing are discussed throughout this chapter. Design Verification A VLSI design can be described at different levels of abstraction, as illustrated in Figure 1.3. The design process is essentially a process of transforming a higher
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