Introduction 25 1.5 HISTORICAL REVIEW OF VLSI TEST TECHNOLOGY VLSI testing includes two processes: test generation and test application. The goal of test generation is to produce test patterns for efficient testing. Test application is the process of applying those test patterns to the CUT and analyzing the output responses. Test application is performed by either automatic test equipment (ATE) or test facilities in the chip itself. This section gives a brief historical review of VLSI test technology development. 1.5.1 Automatic Test Equipment Automatic test equipment (ATE) is computer-controlled equipment used in the production testing of ICs (both at the wafer level and in packaged devices) and PCBs. Test patterns are applied to the CUT and the output responses are compared to stored responses for the fault-free circuit. In the 1960s, when ICs were first introduced, it was foreseen that testing would become a bottleneck to high-volume
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