26 VLSI Test Principles and Architectures for comparison with the fault-free responses. These translations and some environment settings are controlled by the central computer; therefore, a test program, usually written in a high-level language, becomes an important ingredient for controlling these translations and environment settings. Algo-rithmically generated test patterns may consist of subroutines, pattern and test routine calls, or sequenced events. The test program also specifies the timing format in terms of the tester edge set . An edge set is a data format with timing information for applying new data to a chip input pin and includes the input setup time, hold time, and the waveform type. 4. Digital signal processor (DSP)—Powerful 32-bit DSP techniques have been widely applied to analog testing for capturing analog characteristics at high frequencies. Digital signals are converted to analog signals and applied to the analog circuit inputs, while the analog output signals are converted to digital
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