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Introduction 27 From a test economics point of view, there has been a systematic decrease in the capital cost of manufacturing a transistor over the past several decades as we continue to deliver more complex devices; however, testing capital costs per transistor have remained relatively constant. As a result, test costs are becoming an increasing portion of the overall industry capital requirement per transistor, to the extent that currently it costs almost as much to test as to manufacture a transistor. From a test technology point of view on the other hand, ATE in the early 1980s had resolution capabilities well in excess of the component requirements. In 1985, for example, when testing a then fast 8-MHz 286 microprocessor, a 1-ns accuracy in the control of input signal transitions, referred to as edge placement , was available in ATE with very low yield loss due to tester tolerances. Later, for testing 700-MHz Pentium III microprocessors, only a 100-ps edge placement accuracy was available
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