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108 VLSI Test Principles and Architectures and should be caught prior to physical implementation. Fault simulation, on the other hand, is concerned with the behavior of fabricated circuits as a consequence of inevitable fabrication process imperfections. Manufacturing defects ( e.g. , wire shorts and opens), if present, may cause the circuits to behave differently from the expected behavior. Fault simulation generally assumes that the design is function- ally correct. The capability of fault simulation to predict the faulty circuit behavior is of great importance for test and diagnosis. First, fault simulation rates the effectiveness of a set of test patterns in detecting manufacturing defects. The quality of a test set is expressed in terms of fault coverage , the percentage of modeled faults that causes the design to exhibit observable erroneous responses if the test set is applied. In practice, the designer employs the fault simulator to evaluate the fault coverage
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