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244 VLSI Test Principles and Architectures the fault d slow-to-fall, which can be detected by V 1 V 4 , has already been detected by selecting the test chain V 2 V 4 V 1 . Therefore, the edge V 1 V 4 can be removed from the weighted pattern graph because it no longer contributes to the detection of other transition faults. Similar argument can be made for the edge V 3 V 1 . Finally, all the seven originally undetected faults in Table 4.16 are detected with the test chain V 2 V 4 V 1 V 3 V 4 V 2 . 4.10.5 Bridging Fault ATPG Recall that bridging faults are those faults that involve a short between two signals in the circuit. Given a circuit with n signals, there are potentially n × n 1 possible bridging faults. However, practically, only those signals that are locally close on the die are more likely to be bridged. Therefore, the total number of bridging faults can be reduced to be linear in the number of signals in the circuit.
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