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264 VLSI Test Principles and Architectures 5.1 INTRODUCTION With recent advances in semiconductor manufacturing technology, the production and usage of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) circuits has run into a variety of testing challenges during wafer probe, wafer sort, pre-ship screening, incoming test of chips and boards, test of assembled boards, system test, periodic maintenance, repair test, etc. Traditional test techniques that use automatic test pattern genera- tion (ATPG) software to target single faults for digital circuit testing have become quite expensive and can no longer provide sufficiently high fault coverage for deep submicron or nanometer designs from the chip level to the board and system levels. One approach to alleviate these testing problems is to incorporate built-in self- test (BIST) features into a digital circuit at the design stage [McCluskey 1986] [Abramovici 1994] [Bushnell 2000] [Mourad 2000] [Stroud 2002] [Jha 2003]. With logic BIST, circuits that generate test patterns and analyze the output responses of
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