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Class notes - EXAM1 16:25 StatisticalLearning o

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EXAM 1 16:25       Statistical Learning The brain picks up on the regularities in the environment We are sensitive to co-occurring experiences Meaning comes in only when we try to interpret the patterns  One of the main ways we learn. How does it apply to school? o Basically everything is statistical learning o Science example: repeating procedures From this lesson you should know that People o Pick up of statistical regularities o Use these regularities to know how to behave o Tabulate these regularities automatically o This is universal basic cognitive process regardless of the cultures you are  in Conditioning Classical Conditioning o Learning happens when two stimuli simply become associated o Training an animal  o Pavlov’s Experiment: dogs saliva increases when the bell rings because  they think they will get food Operant conditioning
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o Classical conditioning- a simple association of two things (stimuli) o Operant- the association is between a behavior and an outcome thate  changes the probability that the behavior will reoccur  o Positive reinforcement  o Negative reinforcement Encouraging a behavior o Positive punishment o Negative punishment: take something away Discouraging a behavior o Cultural conditioning:  Ex: raising hand when you have a question Concept formation and Categorization What are concepts? o The basic units of thinking o Specific objects or concepts My bike- object o Types of concepts Simple concepts: red, shape Complex concepts:  Conjunctive concepts: Concepts defined by the simultaneous presence  of two or more common characteristics (Concepts) Ex: apple Disjunctive concepts: concepts defined by the presence of one of two  common characteristics or both. Ex: a person who doesn’t eat beef.
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Levels of inclusiveness Superoridnate concepts-  Basic concepts- Subordinate concepts Why is it important to know about concepts? Concepts help to create systems of reasoning or “sets of core  principles that define the entities covered by the domain and  support reasoning about those entities”  o Connections between concepts Surface Functional Relational o The relational shift Seeing the relations between concepts 1. Children rely heavily on surface similarity. The ability to recognize  relational similarity increases as children get older. 2. As adults learn about a topic, they first focus on surface similarity  and slowly get better at seeing relational similarity  o Why rely more on surface features at first? Not enough background knowledge; easier; 
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Class notes - EXAM1 16:25 StatisticalLearning o

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