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notesBIO2 - (AA normal targeted by malaria Aa carrier but...

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Hardy Weinberg Allele frequency: p + q =1 Genotype frequency: p2(homozygous dom) + 2pq(heterozygous) + q2(homozygous rec) = 1 Example: “A” eats all humans and “a” only Stevens. 1. Homozygous dominant plants is: .1 p2 = .1 so p= sqrt(.1) 2. P = .6, what is q2? q = .4, q2 = .16 Four processes of microevolution 1. Natural selection – survival of the fittest, five modes of natural selection a. Directional selection – shifts all the population to resemble the bugs with the immunity, right or left b. Stabilizing selection – there is a tendency to be the median. Props it like a tent, or the standard size nut then makes for the median beak. c. Disruptive selection – selection prefers the extremes. Median dies out. d. Balancing selection – heterozygote are favored, 2 alleles are maintained in a population. Sickle cell an example
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Unformatted text preview: (AA normal targeted by malaria, Aa carrier but unaffected by both, aa sickle cell) e. Sexual selection – traits develop that are only to help organism reproduce 2. Genetic drift – change in allele frequency DUE TO CHANCE %%%, smaller populations more affected. a. Bottleneck effect – a natural disaster happens and the population is reduced, the survivors are random. Losing both phenotypes and genotypes sometimes b. Founder affect – what’s important about this Is the isolation. An individual or a small group becomes isolated and then grows from there. 3. Gene flow – travel of organisms between two populations (immigration and emigration). Stabilizing effect, counterintuitive to gene drfit 4. Mutation – only creative force, may be good/bad/neutral....
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