7115222-Pediatrics

7115222-Pediatrics - PEDIATRICS Congenital Heart Defects A...

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PEDIATRICS Congenital Heart Defects A. Congenital heart defects in general 1. Etiology: usually not known - associated with maternal factors: a. infection b. alcoholism c. age over 40 years d. diabetes mellitus, type one e. genetics, chromosomal changes 2. General findings of congenital heart defects a. child small for age b. physiological failure to thrive c. exercise intolerance d. dyspnea while feeding e. squatting position f. clubbing of fingers 3. Physical consequences of cardiac problems a. increased workload; pulmonary hypertension; decreased systemic output; cyanotic defects b. can lead to hypoxemia and polycythemia c. concern: formation of thrombus with embolus B. Acyanotic defect - infant/child is "pink" 1. Pathology: hole in the heart's internal wall a. blood flows from heart's arterial (left) to venous (right) side or a "left to right shunt", not systemically, but only within heart itself b. size of defect will determine severity of condition 2. Four common types: all with increased pulmonary blood flow C. Cyanotic defect: infant/child is "blue"
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