24712000-Anatomy-and-Physiology

24712000-Anatomy-and-Physiology - III. Anatomy and...

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III. Anatomy and Physiology Vagina The vagina is a muscular, hollow tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the cervix of the uterus. It is situated between the urinary bladder and wall allows the vagina to expand and contract. The muscular walls are lined with mucous membranes, which keep it protected and moist. A thin sheet of tissue with one or more holes in it, called the hymen, partially covers the opening of the vagina. The vagina receives sperm during sexual intercourse from the penis. The sperm that survive the acidic condition of the vagina continue on through to the fallopian tubes where fertilization may occur. The vagina is made up of three layers, an inner mucosal layer; middle muscular is layer, and an outer fibrous layer. The inner layer is made of vaginal rugae that stretch and allow penetration to occur. These also help with stimulation of the penis. The middle layer has glands that secrete acidic mucus (pH of around 4.0.) that keeps bacterial growth down. The outer muscular layer is especially important with delivery of a fetus and placenta. Purposes of the Vagina •Receives a males erect penis and semen during sexual intercourse. •Pathway through a woman's body for the baby to take during childbirth. •Provides the route for the menstrual blood (menses) from the uterus, to leave the body. •May hold forms of birth control, such as a diaphragm, FemCap, Nuva Ring, or female condom.
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The cervix (from Latin "neck") is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. Where they join together forms an almost 90 degree curve. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half its length is visible with appropriate medical equipment; the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. It is occasionally called "cervix uteri", or "neck of the uterus".During menstruation, the cervix stretches open slightly to allow the endometrium to be shed. This stretching is believed to be part of the cramping pain that many women experience. Evidence for this is given by the fact that some women's cramps subside or disappear after their first vaginal birth because the cervical opening has widened. The portion projecting into the vagina is referred to as the portio vaginalis or ectocervix. . On average, the ectocervix is three cm long and two and a half cm wide. It has
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This note was uploaded on 05/16/2011 for the course NURSING 112 taught by Professor Brinley during the Spring '11 term at Pace.

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24712000-Anatomy-and-Physiology - III. Anatomy and...

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