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32631552-Drugs-for-Diabetes-Mellitus

32631552-Drugs-for-Diabetes-Mellitus - Drugs for Diabetes...

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Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus Pancreas Endocrine Gland Exocrine Gland Islet of Langerhans Pancreatic Juice Produce Insulin (β cell) Glucagon (α cell) Somatostatin (δ cell) Contain Digestive Enzymes Further Breakdown Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat in chime Glucose Hypoglycaemia Hyperglycaemia ↓ Blood Glucose ↑ Blood Glucose Hypoglycaemic Shock Coma Death Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Diabetes Mellitus ↑ Blood Sugar (Glucose)/ Hyperglycaemia Due to Absolute, Relative lack of Insulin (Insulin Resistance) Chronic Complications Macrovascular Cardiovascular Cerebrovascular Peripheral Vascular System Microvascular Nephropathy Neuropathy Retinopathy Types Type 1 Destruction of Islet β cells Insulin Dependent DM (IDDM) Juvenile -onset Diabetes Children, Teenagers, Young Adults Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells (produce little, no insulin) Requires exogenous Insulin (Insulin Injections) Type 2 Insulin Resistance Loss of response to Insulin Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes (NIDDM) Older Individuals Insulin Deficiency, Resistance Risk Factors Age Lack of Exercise Obesity Hypertension Dyslipidemia Genetic Signs, Symptoms Dry Mouth Extreme Thirst Frequent Urination Drowsiness Frequent Bed Wetting Stomach Pain Gestational Pregnant women who never had diabetes before ↑ Blood Sugar during Pregnancy Affects 4% of Pregnant Women May Precede Development Type 2 Congenital Diabetes Genetic Defects of Insulin Secretion Cystic Fibrosis-related Diabetes Steroid Diabetes Induced by ↑ Dose Glucocorg415coids Blood Glucose Levels Fasting Random Venous Plasma Glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L ≥ 11.1 mmol/L Fasting Test – Most Appropriate to determine blood glucose levels (Diabetes) Managing Diabetes Diet Exercise Medication – Insulin, Oral Anti-Diabetic Agents
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Insulin Exogenous Insulin Required in Gestational Diabetes Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 (sometimes) Orally Subcutaneous IV Insulin is degraded in GIT (polypeptide) by Proteolytic enzymes Injections Acute Care settings Insulin Pump Drug Onset Peak Duration Length of Time before
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