Respiration student - Respiration Anatomy • Re s pira tio...

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Unformatted text preview: Respiration: Anatomy • Re s pira tio n = pro c e s s o f g a s e xc ha ng e b e twe e n the o rg a nis m a nd e nviro nm e nt. O xyg e n ta ke n in during ins pira tio n; wa s te pro duc ts (e .g ., C O 2 ) during expiration. • 1. RESPIRATORY PASSAGE • Composed of nasal and oral cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi • Functions: • For a simple video of how respiration works, click on the button • http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and- human-body/human-body • Select Lungs; Review lessons in Lungs – A. Larynx : s pe c ia lize d va lvula r m e c ha nis m ; c a n o pe n o r c lo s e the a ir pa s s a g e wa y. – Bio lo g ic a l func tio ns : • Pro te c tive de vic e : Ho w do it pro te c t? • Tho ra c ic fixa tio n: ne e de d to inc re a s e a b do m ina l pre s s ure to e va c ua te vis c e ra l c o nte nts . – Whe n is fixa tio n us e d? – B. Trachea : m us c ula r tub e • e xte nds fro m la rynx to b ro nc hi • 11 to 12 c m in le ng th a nd b e twe e n 2-2.5 c m in dia m e te r • c o m po s e d o f 16 to 20 ho rs e s ho e -s ha pe d ring s o f hya line c a rtila g e – Ea c h ring s e pa ra te d b y s m . s pa c e o f fib ro e la s tic m e m b ra ne . – Ea c h ring is inc o m ple te po s te rio rly whe re tra c he a lie s in c o nta c t with e s o pha g us --fib ro us tis s ue a nd m us c le a re in s pa c e b e twe e n e nds – C a rtila g ino us s truc ture a llo ws fo r rig idity to pre ve nt c o lla ps e , while po s te rio r s truc ture (m us c le & m e m b ra ne s ) pro vide fle xib ility & m o b ility tha t pe rm it it to b e s tre tc he d (e .g ., during inha la tio n), twis te d, o r c o m pre s s e d. • Tra c he a c o nt. – Func tio ns : » Ho w a re the s e a c c o m plis he d? » Hya line ring s s tiffe n s truc ture to he lp ke e p it o pe n. » Tra c he a line d with c ilia te d e pithe lia l m uc o us m e m b ra ne , s e c re te s m uc o us to m o is te n inc o m ing a ir; c ilia a re in c o ns ta nt m o tio n, b e a t @ 10X pe r s e c o nd, a t firs t do wnwa rd, the n s lo wly upwa rd – C linic a l no te : One of major causes of lung infection is reduced ciliary action. Normally the mucous blanket lining trachea is propelled toward larynx at rate of 5mm per minute. Smoke from a single cigarette can cause cilia to be non-motile for several hours. At the s a m e tim e c ig a re tte s m o ke s tim ula te s m uc us s e c re tio n. – C LINIC AL NO TE: An e m e rg e nc y o pe ra tio n c a lle d tra c he o to m y (to m e = c utting ) is s o m e tim e s pe rfo rm e d b e c a us e o f s uc h thing s a s o b s truc tio n...
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Respiration student - Respiration Anatomy • Re s pira tio...

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