Chapter 1 - Life-Span Perspective Scientific study of how...

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Life-Span Perspective Scientific study of how people change over the life-span Mechanisms underlying change Neurological, physical, social/environmental Emphasizes continuity over the lifespan Developmental change is not discrete Development is lifelong
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Developmental Change Multi-directional Some things are gained, others are lost Growth, Maintenance, Regulation of Loss Multi-contextual Many different factors affect change Genes, environment, culture, etc. Multi-disciplinary Change occurs in many ways Neurology, learning, intelligence, social, cultural Plasticity Change can occur at any time…but to varying degrees
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General Domains of Change Biological Biological changes How they influence psychological/social behavior How social/environmental factors affect biological change Cognitive Change in perceptual, motor, cognitive, intellectual performance Psycho-Social (socioemotional) Change in personality, self-concept, relationships Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective High level view that all factors need to be considered to understand development
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Nature vs. Nurture debate Classical philosophy: rationalism vs. empiricism Greek rationalism: Plato, true knowledge attained only through introspection, reason and innate ideas British empiricism: John Locke, blank slate, all ideas come from the senses
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Modern ideas Brain has an innate (genetic) structure that shapes the way we think, perceive, learn, grow Genes contain a “plan” for development but the environment affects how it all unfolds Reaction range Nature AND nurture
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Biological Perspective Maturational Theory (A. Gesell) Development follows a pre-planned program (dev pre programmed by the genes) Genetically determined (DNA causes development) Mostly ignores environmental influences Stage-based: development will occur in specific predetermined stages, regardless of environmental influences
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Biological Perspective Ethological Theory (e.g. K. Lorenz) Like Maturational theory: genetically pre- determined development Role of evolution emphasized Many early behaviors are adaptive and evolutionarily programmed e.g. Clinging, sucking, crying Environment is important too “Critical Periods” in development
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This note was uploaded on 05/16/2011 for the course DEP 2004 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Chapter 1 - Life-Span Perspective Scientific study of how...

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