Chapter 26&11 - Organic Chemistry Selected sections...

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Unformatted text preview: Organic Chemistry Selected sections Ch 26 + Ch 11 The chemistry of life and living things The chemistry of carbon compounds 2 Chem 1AA3 3 Chem 1AA3 Evolution of the field 4 Chem 1AA3 Why is organic chemistry important? To understand how we interact with other organisms (food & nutrients, infections), our environment (aromas, pollutants), drugs, and ourselves (metabolism, growth, immunity, cancer) To understand how things are made, what they're made of, and how they react with each other 5 Chem 1AA3 Why is organic chemistry important? Because it is central to: Chemistry Chemical Biology Biochemistry Biology Engineering Material sciences Forensic Sciences Medicine To get into graduate/medical/dental school! 6 Chem 1AA3 Medical Application: Molecular Imaging 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose 7 Chem 1AA3 Organic Chemistry Components 1) Structure: The connectivity and 3-D nature of compounds 2) Theory: Structure and reactivity in terms of atoms and the electrons that bind them together 8 Chem 1AA3 Components (continued) 3) Synthesis: How to design new molecules and then make them 9 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds Why is one element in the periodic table given its own field? 98% of all known chemical substances are organic Inorganic chemistry = the chemistry of everything else Nearly all pharmaceuticals are organic in nature 10 10 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Biological O H 11- cis-retinal Serotonin (neurotransmitter) N H NH 2 O H 11 11 Chem 1AA3 Diagnostic iClicker Question Which is the cis double bond in 11- cis-retinal? O H (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 12 12 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Medicines Tamoxifen O Me 2 N N N NH N O S O O N N EtO N OH N H O F OH OH O Lipitor 13 13 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Drugs Stanozolol N H N OH CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 H 14 14 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Industrial Chemicals Indigo dye (blue jeans) N H O NH O N H 2 N H O CO 2 H O OMe Aspartame 15 15 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Natural Products N O H N MeO Quinine Cocaine N O O O O Alkanes Section 26-1, 26-2 17 17 Chem 1AA3 Alkanes Hydrocarbons the simplest organic compounds (C n H 2n+2 ) Saturated (use all bonding e to make single bonds) Methane (various representations): 18 18 Chem 1AA3 Ethane (C 2 H 6 ) 19 19 Chem 1AA3 Propane (C 3 H 8 ) 20 20 Chem 1AA3 Drawing Organic Molecules Guideline 1: Draw molecules in a Zig-Zag shape versus linear structures Guideline 2: You can assume there are H- atoms attached to carbon atoms in a Zig- Zag structure giving a valence of 4 vs CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 OH OH H H H H H H H 21 21 Chem 1AA3 Drawing molecules (continued) Guideline 3: For reactions, draw out the functional groups in detail and include lone pairs (electrons) OH O 22 22 Chem 1AA3 Advice and hints Be neat messy structures lead to mistakes Count your carbon atoms!...
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Chapter 26&11 - Organic Chemistry Selected sections...

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