Organic Chemistry Selected sections Ch 26 + Ch 11 The chemistry of life and living things The chemistry of carbon compounds 2 Chem 1AA3 3 Chem 1AA3 Evolution of the field 4 Chem 1AA3 Why is organic chemistry important? • To understand how we interact with – other organisms (food & nutrients, infections), – our environment (aromas, pollutants), – drugs, and – ourselves (metabolism, growth, immunity, cancer) • To understand how things are made, what they're made of, and how they react with each other 5 Chem 1AA3 Why is organic chemistry important? • Because it is central to: Chemistry Chemical Biology Biochemistry Biology Engineering Material sciences Forensic Sciences Medicine • To get into graduate/medical/dental school! 6 Chem 1AA3 Medical Application: Molecular Imaging 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose
7 Chem 1AA3 Organic Chemistry Components 1) Structure: The connectivity and 3-D nature of compounds 2) Theory: Structure and reactivity in terms of atoms and the electrons that bind them together 8 Chem 1AA3 Components (continued) 3) Synthesis: How to design new molecules – and then make them 9 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds • Why is one element in the periodic table given its own field? – 98% of all known chemical substances are organic • Inorganic chemistry = the chemistry of everything else • Nearly all pharmaceuticals are organic in nature 10 10 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Biological O H N H NH 2 O H 11 Chem 1AA3 Diagnostic iClicker Question Which is the cis double bond in 11- cis -retinal? O H (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 12 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Medicines O Me 2 N N N NH N O S O O N N EtO N OH N H O F OH OH O
13 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Drugs N H N OH CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 H 14 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Industrial Chemicals N H O NH O N H 2 N H O CO 2 H O OMe 15 15 Chem 1AA3 Organic Compounds: Natural Products N O H N MeO N O O O O Alkanes Section 26-1, 26-2 17 Chem 1AA3 Alkanes • Hydrocarbons – the simplest organic compounds (C n H 2n+2 ) • Saturated (use all bonding e − to make single bonds) • Methane (various representations): 18 Chem 1AA3 Ethane (C 2 H 6 )
19 Chem 1AA3 Propane (C 3 H 8 ) 20 Chem 1AA3 Drawing Organic Molecules • Guideline 1: Draw molecules in a Zig-Zag shape versus linear structures • Guideline 2: You can assume there are H- atoms attached to carbon atoms in a Zig- Zag structure giving a valence of 4 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 OH H H H H H H H 21 21 Chem 1AA3 Drawing molecules (continued) • Guideline 3: For reactions, draw out the functional groups in detail and include lone pairs (electrons) 22 22 Chem 1AA3 Advice and hints • Be neat – messy structures lead to mistakes • Count your carbon atoms! • Count the substituents on carbon atoms (including implied H atoms) • In this course, there are never more than four bonds to carbon 23 Chem 1AA3 Diagnostic iClicker Question Which of the following wedge-and-dash drawings of propane is incorrect?
- Spring '08
- Organic chemistry, Chem, Carboxylic acid, H H H H H C C C C C H H H H H H H H C H H H H H C C C C H H H H H H H C H H H H C C C H H H H C H H