Chapter 4 Notes - 10/3/10 Shapes of Alkanes" This means...

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10/3/10 1 Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis This means review Chapter 4 2 Shapes of Alkanes “Straight-chain” alkanes have a zig-zag orientation when they are in their most straight orientation Straight chain alkanes are also called unbranched alkanes Chapter 4 3 Branched alkanes have at least one carbon which is attached to more than two other carbons Chapter 4 4 Constitutional isomers have different physical properties (melting point, boiling point, densities etc.) Constitutional isomers have the same molecular formula but different connectivity of atoms
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10/3/10 2 Chapter 4 5 The number of constitutional isomers possible for a given molecular formula increases rapidly with the number of carbons Chapter 4 6 Primary, Secondary, Tertiary ClassiFcation of Hydrogen Atoms Hydrogens take their classiFcation from the carbon they are attached to The CARBON atoms are also designated primary (CH 3 ), secondary (CH 2 ), tertiary (CH) or quaternary (C with 4 substituents) NOTE: primary, secondary, tertiary alcohols and amines: Chapter 4 7 Examples Chapter 4 8 Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides In IUPAC nomenclature halides are named as substituents on the parent chain Halo and alkyl substituents are considered to be of equal ranking In common nomenclature the simple haloalkanes are named as alkyl halides Common nomenclature of simple alkyl halides is accepted by IUPAC and still used
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10/3/10 3 Chapter 4 9 IUPAC Substitutive Nomenclature An IUPAC name may have up to 4 features: locants, preFxes,
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This note was uploaded on 05/16/2011 for the course CHEM BIO 20a3 taught by Professor Stover during the Fall '10 term at McMaster University.

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Chapter 4 Notes - 10/3/10 Shapes of Alkanes" This means...

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