Class notes - Foundations of Complex Societies: The...

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Foundations of Complex Societies: The Neolithic Revolution & the Fertile Cresent -predated by Paleolithic era (old stone age) -homo sapiens -large brains allowed homo sapiens to thrive -60,000-15,000 years ago, homo sapiens migrate to other habitable regions -foraging and society -neolithic era (new stone age) -domestication of plants and animals -creates agricultural economy -agricultural revolution -9000bc southwest asia -9000-7000bc southeast Sahara desert (Sudan) -8000-6000bc sub-Saharan west Africa (Nigeria) -takes off due to ready supply of food -causes population spike -settled life -specialization -metallurgy -social classes -Çatal Hüyük -located near a large obsidian deposit, brought wealth -one of the best known Neolithic settlements -gives rise to first cities -Mesopotamia -The land between two rivers” -Fertile crescent -irrigation, 6000bc -Sumeria -Semitic peoples -Ur, Uruk -Ziggurats -military -politics -conquerors & empires in Mesopotamia -Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 BC) -Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750 BC) -Hittites -Assyrians -King Nebuchadnezzar (r. 605-562 BC) -technology -bronze (400 bc) -iron -the wheel -shipbuilding -Patriarchal society -warriors -nobility -priests -free commoners -dependent clients -slaves
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-gender roles -Hammurabi’s code -specialization in learning -cuneiform (2900 bc), phonetic system -astronomy and mathematics -calendar, 12 months + days into hours and minutes -Epic of Gilgamesh (2000 bc) -Hebrews -law and scripture -Hammurabi’s Code -flood story -syncretism -monotheism -Moses -Torah (1000-400BC) -Phoenicians -Canaanites -Mediterranean trade -commercial colonies -alphabetic script (1500bc) -Indo-Europeans -Indo-European languages -domesticated horses -Hittites Early African Societies and the Bantu Migrations: Egypt, Nubia, and the Bantu -Nile river valley -Egyptian -Nubian -flooding allows for agricultural economy -Nile river agriculture -grains -gourds -watermelons -cattle and donkeys (introduced by Sudanese) -Development of states -demographic pressure -geography -states (similar to Sudanese counterparts) -divine kingship -Egyptian unification -Menes (unified Egypt, extended power north, founded Memphis) -Pharaoh (God-king, wielded absolute authority) -Amon (sun god, pharaohs are his sons) -Pyramids at Giza (royal tombs constructed during the Old Kingdom) -Kingdoms -Archaic Period -Old Kingdom -Middle Kingdom -New Kingdom -Kush (offshoot, not as powerful as Egypt) -Security and Instability
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-Sahara -Cataracts -Mediterranean Sea -Red Sea -Political unrest -Hyksos (“foreign rulers,” nomadic, Semitic peoples, bronze weapons + horses, conquer egypt) -Egyptian Imperialism and Collapse (after invasion, determined that the best defense is a good offense; results in resistance) -New Kingdom -Revived kingdom of Kush (Nubian leaders revive it, Kush eventually attacks + conquers Egypt) -Assyrians (invade Egypt from the north w/ iron weapons) -Egyptian society -Social classes (great deal of social mobility in Egypt) -Patriarchal society -Queen Hatshepsut (r. 1473-1458 BC) -Egyptian writing -hieroglyphics -hieratic script (priestly script, disappeared after adoption of Greek script)
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Class notes - Foundations of Complex Societies: The...

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