Genetics Content

Genetics Content - Clicker Quizzes Molecular Genetics of...

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1 1 Molecular Genetics of Prokaryotes Introduction 2 Clicker Quizzes 3 What is Genetics? • Griffiths “…the study of genes” • Snyder “The manipulation of DNA to study cellular and organismal functions” • Russell “[a study of]… the biological properties that are transmitted from parent to offspring” 4 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes multiple, linear single, circular Chromosomes yes no* Sterols in membrane mitochondria cell membrane Respiration endocytosis pores Entry of large molecules 80 S 70 S Ribosome size yes no Membrane-bound organelles yes no Histones yes no? Nucleus Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Trait *Except for Mycoplasma
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2 5 Lloyd 4.3 6 Structural Features of E. coli Fig 1.6 7 Important Terms Gene/cistron -basic unit of hereditary material Genome -all chromosomal genes in a organism Locus- physical location of a gene within a genome Allele -alternate form of a gene Genotype -allelic composition of an organism Phenotype -outcome of a given genotype Haploid -one complete set of genes Diploid -two complete sets of genes Merozygote (= merodiploid)-a partial diploid; has two copies of some genes 8 Bacteriophage are Bacterial Viruses Fig. 2.4
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3 9 Wild Type vs. Mutation Wild Type - The allelic form of a gene that is most prevalent in the “wild” population Mutation -A genetic alteration (usually observed by a change in the phenotype) Mutant- An organism that has one or more mutations; term may also be applied to genes containing mutations and proteins encoded by mutant genes Reverse Mutation “Reversion”- a second mutation that restores a mutant cell to the wild type phenotype. 10 Bacteria, Genes and Proteins: Nomenclature • Genus and species- Escherichia coli (E. coli) • Gene- lacZ, – Wild type - lacZ + –Mutant- lacZ - – Drug resistance- amp r , amp s • Protein-LacZ (1 st letter often capitalized, never italicized) 11 Methods of Characterizing Genes Classical • Based on gene expression (phenotype) • Utilizes mutations to identify functions of unknown genes Molecular • Gene defined as an “open reading frame” in a DNA sequence • Functions of unknown genes inferred from sequence similarity to known genes or biochemical characterization of gene products 12 Griffiths Introduction to Genetics Fig. 7-1 Methods of Bacterial Culture
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This note was uploaded on 05/17/2011 for the course MCDB 101A taught by Professor Thrower during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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Genetics Content - Clicker Quizzes Molecular Genetics of...

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