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LAB 5  – STUDY GUIDE Fertilization:  fusions of egg and sperm to form a  zygote Echinoderms:   Produce large numbers of eggs and sperm Release of gametes is easily induced Eggs can be cultured in simple solution Embryonic development is rapid Sperm:  consist of head, tail, very little cytoplasm o Acrosome tip –  enzymes that break into egg o Midpiece:  contains mitochondria to supply energy for tail movement  Egg:  much larger that sperm; contains stored nutrients in cytoplasm o Surrounded by plasma membrane and outer  vitelline layer o Inside plasma membrane contains  cortical granules o Entire egg is covered by jelly Fertilization: 1. Echinoderms release eggs/sperm into thesea –  broadcast spawning    2. Acrosome reaction:  contact egg jelly to become “activated”;  bindin  protein helps  penetrate egg 3. Penetrates vitelline later and fuses with plasma membrane entering the cytoplasm
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