Chapter 4 pgs. 68-94

Chapter 4 pgs. 68-94 - Chapter4:pgs.6894 Celltheory 1 2 3 /...

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Chapter 4: pgs. 68-94 Cell theory: 1. Cells are the fundamental units of all life 2. All organisms are composed of cells 3. All cells come from pre-existing life Cell size limited by surface area/volume ratio – must find stable medium o Volume: determines amount of chemical activity per unit time; range from 1-1000  uM 3 o SA: amount of material cell can take in; volume increase SA increases at  lower  rate Resolution: distance apart object must be to distinguish them 2 types of microscope: o Light microscope: use glass lens and visible light; cell sizes and shapes o Electron microscope: use electromagnets to focus electron beam Plasma membrane: created by phospholipid bilayer o Allows cell to maintain a more or less constant internal environment o Selectively permeable barrier o Communicating with adjacent cells and receiving signals from environment o Proteins embedded; binding and adhering to adjacent cells Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic o Organization of life: 1. Archaea- Prokaryote 2. Bacteria- Prokaryote 3. Eukarya- Eukaryote a. Plants b. Animals c. Fungi d. Protists o Prokaryotes: do not typically have membrane enclosed compartments o Eukaryotes: DNA is contained in nucleus; have membrane enclosed  compartments Common to all Prokaryotes o Live in very diverse environments o Plasma membrane encloses cell, regulating traffic o Nucleoid  contains genetic information o Rest of material in cytoplasm Fluid  Cytosol : mostly water, dissolved ions, small molecules, proteins Insoluble suspended particles (like ribosome)
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Specialized to some Prokaryotes o Cell walls:  Most have cell walls outside plasma membrane Most bacteria (not Archaea) contain  peptidoglycan Capsules : layer of slime in some bacteria; provide protection from white  blood cells; helps cell from drying out o Internal membranes: Some bacteria carry photosynthesis – plasma membrane  folds to form internal membrane o Flagella:  Swim using protein appendages o Pili:  project from surfaces of some bacteria; hair-like; help bacteria adhere and  exchange genetic information;   o Cytoskeleton : Internal filamentous helical structure Characteristics of Eukaryotic cells o Organelles:  specialized compartments that have different functions within cells Nucleus:  contains genetic information Mitochondrion:  where energy stored in bonds is converted to ATP Endoplasmic Reticulum/Golgi Apparatus:  proteins are packaged and  sent Lysosomes/Vaculoes:  hydrolyze large molecules to usable monomers Chloroplast:  where photosynthesis is performed o Organelles serve as barrier from other reactions and regulator of nutrients in/out
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This note was uploaded on 05/17/2011 for the course MCDB 101 taught by Professor Unknown during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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Chapter 4 pgs. 68-94 - Chapter4:pgs.6894 Celltheory 1 2 3 /...

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