Chapter 14

Chapter 14 - Chapter14pg.308329...

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Chapter 14 pg. 308-329 Characteristics of Eukaryotic Genome Larger genomes More regulatory sequences Much of it is non-coding Multiple Chromosomes Transcription/Translation are physically separated Plants/Animals good for studying Eukaryote genome: Yeast, Nematode, Fruit Fly, Thale Cress plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) Euk. Genome contains many repetitive sequences High repetitive sequences times   not transcribed into mRNA o Minisatellites:  10-40 bp long; repeated several thousand  o Microsatellites:  very short sequences, 1-3 bp; small clusters of 15-1000 copies Moderately Repetitive Sequences   are transcribed into mRNA o Code for tRNA and rRNA used for proteins synthesis o Allow for these to be created at ample rate Transposons:  transposable elements   move from place to place o Make up to 40% of human genome o Copy/past mechanism   original genome stays put o 4 types: 1. SINE’s: transcribed but not translated 2. LINE’s: longer; transcribed and translated 3. Retro Transposons: make RNA copy of themselves  code for own  proteins 4. DNA Transposons: do not use RNA intermediate but actually move to  new spot in genome o Role: cellular parasites that self-replicate   result in mutation Euk. Genome different for prok.: have non-coding regions form gene families   groups of structurally/functionally related “cousins” Non coding sequences intron:  non-coding regions exons:  coding regions o Introns appear in pre-mRNA   they are removed during processing in the  nucleus Located introns using  Nucleic Acid Hybridization o Target DNA is denatured o Single strand from another source may bond forming a “hybrid
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Chapter 14 - Chapter14pg.308329...

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