3. (a) The force of gravity is constant, so the work it does is given by W Fd=⋅GG, where GFis the force and Gdis the displacement. The force is vertically downward and has magnitude mg, where mis the mass of the flake, so this reduces to W= mgh, where his the height from which the flake falls. This is equal to the radius rof the bowl. Thus Wmgr==××=×−−−(.)( .200 10220 1032kg)(9.8 m sm)4.31 10 J.23(b) The force of gravity is conservative, so the change in gravitational potential energy of
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